Definition:Zero Vector

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Let $\struct {R, +_R, \times_R}$ be a ring.

Let $\struct {G, +_G}$ be an abelian group.

Let $\struct {G, +_G, \circ}_R$ be an $R$-module.

The identity of $\struct {G, +_G}$ is usually denoted $\mathbf 0$, or some variant of this, and called the zero vector.

Note that on occasion it is advantageous to denote the zero vector differently, for example by $e$, or $0_V$ or $0_G$, in order to highlight the fact that the zero vector is not the same object as the zero scalar.

Zero Vector in $\R^n$

Let $\left({\R^n, +, \times}\right)_\R$ be a real vector space.

The zero vector in $\left({\R^n, +, \times}\right)_\R$ is:

$\mathbf 0_{n \times 1} := \begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ 0 \\ \vdots \\ 0 \end{bmatrix}$

where $0 \in \R$.