# Combination Theorem for Sequences/Complex/Product Rule

## Theorem

Let $\sequence {z_n}$ and $\sequence {w_n}$ be sequences in $\C$.

Let $\sequence {z_n}$ and $\sequence {w_n}$ be convergent to the following limits:

$\ds \lim_{n \mathop \to \infty} z_n = c$
$\ds \lim_{n \mathop \to \infty} w_n = d$

Then:

$\ds \lim_{n \mathop \to \infty} \paren {z_n w_n} = c d$

## Proof 1

Because $\sequence {z_n}$ converges, it is bounded by Convergent Sequence is Bounded.

Suppose $\cmod {z_n} \le K$ for $n = 1, 2, 3, \ldots$.

Then:

 $\ds \cmod {z_n w_n - c d}$ $=$ $\ds \cmod {z_n w_n - z_n d + z_n d - c d}$ $\ds$ $\le$ $\ds \cmod {z_n w_n - z_n d} + \cmod {z_n d - c d}$ Triangle Inequality for Complex Numbers $\ds$ $=$ $\ds \cmod {z_n} \cmod {w_n - d} + m \cdot \size {z_n - c}$ Complex Modulus of Product of Complex Numbers $\ds$ $\le$ $\ds K \cdot \cmod {w_n - d} + \cmod d \cdot \cmod {z_n - c}$ $\ds$ $=:$ $\ds \phi_n$

But $z_n \to c$ as $n \to \infty$.

So $\cmod {z_n - c} \to 0$ as $n \to \infty$ from Convergent Sequence Minus Limit.

Similarly $\cmod {w_n - d} \to 0$ as $n \to \infty$.

From the Combined Sum Rule for Real Sequences:

$\ds \lim_{n \mathop \to \infty} \paren {\lambda z_n + \mu w_n} = \lambda c + \mu d$, $\phi_n \to 0$ as $n \to \infty$

The result follows by the Squeeze Theorem for Sequences of Complex Numbers.

$\blacksquare$

## Proof 2

Let $z_n = x_n + i y_n$.

Let $w_n = u_n + i v_n$.

Let $c = a + i b$

Let $d = e + i f$.

By definition of convergent complex sequence:

 $\ds \lim_{n \mathop \to \infty} z_n$ $=$ $\ds c$ $\ds \leadsto \ \$ $\ds \lim_{n \mathop \to \infty} x_n + i \lim_{n \mathop \to \infty} y_n$ $=$ $\ds a + i b$ Definition of Convergent Complex Sequence

 $\ds \lim_{n \mathop \to \infty} w_n$ $=$ $\ds d$ $\ds \leadsto \ \$ $\ds \lim_{n \mathop \to \infty} u_n + i \lim_{n \mathop \to \infty} v_n$ $=$ $\ds e + i f$ Definition of Convergent Complex Sequence

Then:

 $\ds \lim_{n \mathop \to \infty} z_n w_n$ $=$ $\ds \lim_{n \mathop \to \infty} \paren {\paren {x_n u_n - y_n v_n} + i \paren {y_n u_n + x_n v_n} }$ Definition of Complex Multiplication $\ds$ $=$ $\ds \lim_{n \mathop \to \infty} \paren {x_n u_n - y_n v_n} + i \lim_{n \mathop \to \infty} \paren {y_n u_n + x_n v_n}$ Definition of Convergent Complex Sequence $\ds$ $=$ $\ds \paren {\lim_{n \mathop \to \infty} \paren {x_n u_n} - \lim_{n \mathop \to \infty} \paren {y_n v_n} } + i \paren {\lim_{n \mathop \to \infty} \paren {y_n u_n} + \lim_{n \mathop \to \infty} \paren {x_n v_n} }$ Sum Rule for Real Sequences $\ds$ $=$ $\ds \paren {\lim_{n \mathop \to \infty} \paren {x_n} \lim_{n \mathop \to \infty} \paren {u_n} - \lim_{n \mathop \to \infty} \paren {y_n} \lim_{n \mathop \to \infty} \paren {v_n} } + i \paren {\lim_{n \mathop \to \infty} \paren {y_n} \lim_{n \mathop \to \infty} \paren {u_n} + \lim_{n \mathop \to \infty} \paren {x_n} \lim_{n \mathop \to \infty} \paren {v_n} }$ Product Rule for Real Sequences $\ds$ $=$ $\ds \paren {a e - b f} + i \paren {b e + a f}$ $\ds$ $=$ $\ds \paren {a + i b} \paren {e + i f}$ Definition of Complex Multiplication $\ds$ $=$ $\ds c d$

$\blacksquare$