# Construction of Inverse Completion/Natural Number Difference

## Natural Number Difference in Inverse Completion

Let $\left({S, \circ}\right)$ be a commutative semigroup which has cancellable elements.

Let $\left({C, \circ {\restriction_C}}\right) \subseteq \left({S, \circ}\right)$ be the subsemigroup of cancellable elements of $\left({S, \circ}\right)$, where $\circ {\restriction_C}$ denotes the restriction of $\circ$ to $C$.

Let $\left({S \times C, \oplus}\right)$ be the external direct product of $\left({S, \circ}\right)$ and $\left({C, \circ {\restriction_C}}\right)$, where $\oplus$ is the operation on $S \times C$ induced by $\circ$ on $S$ and $\circ {\restriction_C}$ on $C$.

Let $\boxtimes$ be the cross-relation on $S \times C$, defined as:

- $\left({x_1, y_1}\right) \boxtimes \left({x_2, y_2}\right) \iff x_1 \circ y_2 = x_2 \circ y_1$

In the context of the natural numbers, the difference is defined as:

- $n - m = p \iff m + p = n$

from which it can be seen that the above congruence can be understood as:

- $\left({x_1, y_1}\right) \boxtimes \left({x_2, y_2}\right) \iff x_1 + y_2 = x_2 + y_1 \iff x_1 - y_1 = x_2 - y_2$

Thus this congruence defines an equivalence between pairs of elements which have the same difference.

## Sources

- 1965: Seth Warner:
*Modern Algebra*... (previous) ... (next): $\S 20$