Definition:Additive Group of Integers Modulo m

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Definition

Let $m \in \Z$ such that $m > 1$.

The additive group of integers modulo $m$ $\struct {\Z_m, +_m}$ is the set of integers modulo $m$ under the operation of addition modulo $m$.


Examples

The additive group of integers modulo $m$ can be described by showing its Cayley table.

Modulo 3

$\begin{array}{r|rrr} \struct {\Z_3, +_3} & \eqclass 0 3 & \eqclass 1 3 & \eqclass 2 3 \\ \hline \eqclass 0 3 & \eqclass 0 3 & \eqclass 1 3 & \eqclass 2 3 \\ \eqclass 1 3 & \eqclass 1 3 & \eqclass 2 3 & \eqclass 0 0 \\ \eqclass 2 3 & \eqclass 2 3 & \eqclass 0 3 & \eqclass 1 3 \\ \end{array}$


Modulo 4

$\begin{array}{r|rrrr} \struct {\Z_4, +_4} & \eqclass 0 4 & \eqclass 1 4 & \eqclass 2 4 & \eqclass 3 4 \\ \hline \eqclass 0 4 & \eqclass 0 4 & \eqclass 1 4 & \eqclass 2 4 & \eqclass 3 4 \\ \eqclass 1 4 & \eqclass 1 4 & \eqclass 2 4 & \eqclass 3 4 & \eqclass 0 4 \\ \eqclass 2 4 & \eqclass 2 4 & \eqclass 3 4 & \eqclass 0 4 & \eqclass 1 4 \\ \eqclass 3 4 & \eqclass 3 4 & \eqclass 0 4 & \eqclass 1 4 & \eqclass 2 4 \\ \end{array}$


Modulo 5

$\begin{array} {r|rrrrr} \struct {\Z_5, +_5} & \eqclass 0 5 & \eqclass 1 5 & \eqclass 2 5 & \eqclass 3 5 & \eqclass 4 5 \\ \hline \eqclass 0 5 & \eqclass 0 5 & \eqclass 1 5 & \eqclass 2 5 & \eqclass 3 5 & \eqclass 4 5 \\ \eqclass 1 5 & \eqclass 1 5 & \eqclass 2 5 & \eqclass 3 5 & \eqclass 4 5 & \eqclass 0 5 \\ \eqclass 2 5 & \eqclass 2 5 & \eqclass 3 5 & \eqclass 4 5 & \eqclass 0 5 & \eqclass 1 5 \\ \eqclass 3 5 & \eqclass 3 5 & \eqclass 4 5 & \eqclass 0 5 & \eqclass 1 5 & \eqclass 2 5 \\ \eqclass 4 5 & \eqclass 4 5 & \eqclass 0 5 & \eqclass 1 5 & \eqclass 2 5 & \eqclass 3 5 \\ \end{array}$


Modulo 6

$\begin{array}{r|rrrrrr} \struct {\Z_6, +_6} & \eqclass 0 6 & \eqclass 1 6 & \eqclass 2 6 & \eqclass 3 6 & \eqclass 4 6 & \eqclass 5 6 \\ \hline \eqclass 0 6 & \eqclass 0 6 & \eqclass 1 6 & \eqclass 2 6 & \eqclass 3 6 & \eqclass 4 6 & \eqclass 5 6 \\ \eqclass 1 6 & \eqclass 1 6 & \eqclass 2 6 & \eqclass 3 6 & \eqclass 4 6 & \eqclass 5 6 & \eqclass 0 6 \\ \eqclass 2 6 & \eqclass 2 6 & \eqclass 3 6 & \eqclass 4 6 & \eqclass 5 6 & \eqclass 0 6 & \eqclass 1 6 \\ \eqclass 3 6 & \eqclass 3 6 & \eqclass 4 6 & \eqclass 5 6 & \eqclass 0 6 & \eqclass 1 6 & \eqclass 2 6 \\ \eqclass 4 6 & \eqclass 4 6 & \eqclass 5 6 & \eqclass 0 6 & \eqclass 1 6 & \eqclass 2 6 & \eqclass 3 6 \\ \eqclass 5 6 & \eqclass 5 6 & \eqclass 0 6 & \eqclass 1 6 & \eqclass 2 6 & \eqclass 3 6 & \eqclass 4 6 \\ \end{array}$


Also see

  • Results about additive groups of integers modulo $m$ can be found here.