# Mathematician:Augustus De Morgan

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## Mathematician

British mathematician and logician best known for De Morgan's laws.

Also introduced and made rigorous the Principle of Mathematical Induction.

Did considerable work on the logic of relations.

## Nationality

British

## History

- Born: 27 June 1806 in Madurai, Madras Presidency, British Raj (now India)
- Died: 18 March 1871 in London, England

## Theorems

Results named for **Augustus De Morgan** can be found here.

## Publications

- 1836:
*An Explanation of the Gnomonic Projection of the Sphere* - 1837:
*Elements of Trigonometry, and Trigonometrical Analysis* - 1837:
*The Elements of Algebra* - 1838:
*An Essay on Probabilities* - 1840:
*The Elements of Arithmetic* - 1840:
*First Notions of Logic, Preparatory to the Study of Geometry* - 1840: Edited
*Barlow's Tables, 2nd ed.* - 1842:
*The Differential and Integral Calculus* - 1845:
*The Globes, Celestial and Terrestrial* - 1847:
*Formal Logic or The Calculus of Inference* - October 1848:
*Short Supplementary Remarks on the first six Books of Euclid's*(in the*The Elements**Companion to the [British] Almanac*, 1849) - 1849:
*Trigonometry and Double Algebra* - 1860:
*Syllabus of a Proposed System of Logic* - 1872:
*A Budget of Paradoxes*

## Notable Quotes

*It is easier to square the circle than to get round a mathematician.*- -- Quoted in 1937: Eric Temple Bell:
*Men of Mathematics*:*They Say: What Say They? : Let Them Say*

- -- Quoted in 1937: Eric Temple Bell:

*There never has been, and till we see it we never shall believe that there can be, a system of geometry worthy of the name, which has any material departures (we do not speak of*corrections*or*extensions*or*developments*) from the plan laid down by Euclid.*- -- October 1848:
*Short Supplementary Remarks on the first six Books of Euclid's**The Elements*

- -- October 1848:

*Plato's writings do not convince any mathematician that their author was strongly addicted to geometry ... We know that he encouraged mathematics ... But if -- which nobody believes -- the μηδειϛ άγεωμέτρητος εἰσίτω [Let no man ignorant of geometry enter] of Tzetzes had been written over his gate, it would no more have indicated the geometry within than a warning not to forget to bring a packet of sandwiches would now give promise of a good dinner.*- -- Quoted in 1937: Eric Temple Bell:
*Men of Mathematics*:*They Say: What Say They? : Let Them Say*

- -- Quoted in 1937: Eric Temple Bell:

## Also known as

Some sources refer to him as **Augustus de Morgan**, that is, with a lowercase **d**.

## Sources

- John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson: "Augustus De Morgan": MacTutor History of Mathematics archive

- 1926: Sir Thomas L. Heath:
*Euclid: The Thirteen Books of The Elements: Volume 1*(2nd ed.) ... (next): Preface - 1937: Eric Temple Bell:
*Men of Mathematics*... (previous) ... (next):*They Say: What Say They? : Let Them Say* - 1946: Alfred Tarski:
*Introduction to Logic and to the Methodology of Deductive Sciences*(2nd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): $\S \text{II}$: Exercise $14$ (footnote) - 1959: A.H. Basson and D.J. O'Connor:
*Introduction to Symbolic Logic*(3rd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $\text I$ Introductory: $1$. Symbolic Logic and Classical Logic - 1973: Irving M. Copi:
*Symbolic Logic*(4th ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): $2$ Arguments Containing Compound Statements: $2.4$: Statement Forms - 1986: David Wells:
*Curious and Interesting Numbers*... (previous) ... (next): A List of Mathematicians in Chronological Sequence - 1986: David Wells:
*Curious and Interesting Numbers*... (previous) ... (next): $-1$ and $i$ - 1997: David Wells:
*Curious and Interesting Numbers*(2nd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): A List of Mathematicians in Chronological Sequence - 1997: David Wells:
*Curious and Interesting Numbers*(2nd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): $-1$ and $i$ - 1998: David Nelson:
*The Penguin Dictionary of Mathematics*(2nd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next):**De Morgan's laws** - 2008: David Joyner:
*Adventures in Group Theory*(2nd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $1$: Elementary, my dear Watson: $\S 1.1$: You have a logical mind if... - 2008: David Nelson:
*The Penguin Dictionary of Mathematics*(4th ed.) ... (previous) ... (next):**De Morgan's laws** - 2014: Christopher Clapham and James Nicholson:
*The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics*(5th ed.) ... (previous) ... (next):**De Morgan, Augustus**(1806-71)