Mathematician:Nasir al-Din al-Tusi

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Multi-discipline scientist and prolific writer who pre-empted several later Western scientists:

  • Darwin with his ideas on evolution
  • Copernicus on his heliocentric view of the solar system
  • Galileo with his insight into the nature of the Milky Way.

Calculated the value of $51'$ for the precession of the equinoxes.

The first to separate the science of trigonometry, particularly spherical trigonometry, from that of astronomy.




  • Born: 18 Feb 1201, Tus, Khorasan (now Iran)
  • Died: 26 June 1274, Kadhimain (near Baghdad, now in Iraq)

Theorems and Definitions

Definitions of concepts named for Nasir al-Din al-Tusi can be found here.


Around $150$ works, including:

  • 1232: Akhlaq-i Nasiri: a work on ethics, in which he described his Theory of Evolution
  • 1247: Tahrir al-Majisti ("Commentary on the Almagest")
  • c. 1250: Kitāb al-Shakl al-Qattā ("Treatise on the Quadrilateral"): a five volume summary of trigonometry
  • 1272: Zij-i Ilkhani (Ilkhanic Tables): a major astronomical treatise
  • Al-Tadhkirah fi'ilm al-Hay'ah (A memoir on the Science of Astronomy)
  • Al-Risalah al-Asturlabiyah (A Treatise on the Astrolabe)
  • Sharh al-Isharat (Commentary on Avicenna's Isharat)
  • Awsaf al-Ashraf: a short mystical-ethical work in Persian
  • Tajrīd al-iʿtiqād (Summation of Belief): a commentary on Shia doctrines

Many translations and commentaries on Greek texts.

Arabic versions of works by:

Autolycus of Pitane
Aristarchus of Samos
Apollonius of Perga
Archimedes of Syracuse
Hypsicles of Alexandria
Theodosius of Bithynia
Menelaus of Alexandria
Claudius Ptolemy

In particular:

a commentary on Sphaerica by Menelaus
a commentary on On the Sphere and Cylinder by Archimedes

Also known as

In Persian: نصیر الدین طوسی

Full name: Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Tūsī (محمد بن محمد بن الحسن طوسی)

Some parts of his name are often rendered with diacritics:

Naṣīr, Nasîr

Also known as:

Khawaja Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Hasan Tūsī
Muhaqqiq-i Tusi
Khwaja-yi Tusi
Khwaja Nasir
Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad ibn al‐Ḥasan Naṣīr al‐Dīn al‐Ṭūsī
Naṣīr al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al Ṭūsī

His name can also be seen reported by some sources as Nasîr-Eddin

Known in the west simply as Tusi.