Mathematician:Nasir al-Din al-Tusi

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In Persian: نصیر الدین طوسی, known in the west as Tusi.

Full name: محمد بن محمد بن الحسن طوسی - Khawaja Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Hasan Tūsī.

Multi-discipline scientist and prolific writer who pre-empted several later Western scientists:

  • Darwin with his ideas on evolution
  • Copernicus on his heliocentric view of the solar system
  • Galileo with his insight into the nature of the Milky Way.

The first to separate the science of trigonometry, particularly spherical trigonometry, from that of astronomy.




  • Born: 18 Feb 1201, Tus, Khorasan (now Iran)
  • Died: 26 June 1274, Kadhimain (near Baghdad, now in Iraq)

Theorems and Definitions

Definitions of concepts named for Nasir al-Din al-Tusi can be found here.

Books and Papers

Around 150 works, including:

  • 1272: Zij-i Ilkhani (Ilkhanic Tables): a major astronomical treatise
  • Kitāb al-Shakl al-Qattā (Book on the Complete Quadrilateral): a five volume summary of trigonometry
  • Al-Tadhkirah fi'ilm al-Hay'ah (A memoir on the Science of Astronomy)
  • Akhlaq-i-Nasri: a work on ethics, in which he described his Theory of Evolution
  • Al-Risalah al-Asturlabiyah (A Treatise on the Astrolabe)
  • Sharh al-Isharat (Commentary on Avicenna's Isharat)
  • Awsaf al-Ashraf: a short mystical-ethical work in Persian
  • Tajrīd al-iʿtiqād (Summation of Belief): a commentary on Shia doctrines