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A constant is a name for an object (usually a number, but the concept has wider applications) which does not change during the context of a logical or mathematical argument.

A constant can be considered as an operator which takes no operands.

A constant can also be considered as a variable whose domain is a singleton.

Also known as

A constant in an expression in algebra is also seen referred to as an absolute term.

In the same context, the term literal (constant) can sometimes be seen in order to differentiate it from a numerical constant

Also see

Historical Note

The term constant, as opposed to a variable, was introduced by Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz.

Linguistic Note

The word constant can be used either as a noun:

Let $c$ be a constant between $0$ and $1$

or as an adjective:

Let $c$ be a constant real number between $0$ and $1$

Which is intended can usually be deduced from the context.