# Definition:Surjection

(Redirected from Definition:Onto Mapping)

## Definition

Let $S$ and $T$ be sets or classes.

Let $f: S \to T$ be a mapping from $S$ to $T$.

### Definition 1

$f: S \to T$ is a surjection if and only if:

$\forall y \in T: \exists x \in \Dom f: \map f x = y$

That is, if and only if $f$ is right-total.

### Definition 2

$f: S \to T$ is a surjection if and only if:

$f \sqbrk S = T$

or, in the language and notation of direct image mappings:

$\map {f^\to} S = T$

That is, $f$ is a surjection if and only if its image equals its codomain:

$\Img f = \Cdm f$

## Graphical Depiction

The following diagram illustrates the mapping:

$f: S \to T$

where $S$ and $T$ are the finite sets:

 $\displaystyle S$ $=$ $\displaystyle \set {a, b, c, i, j, k}$ $\displaystyle T$ $=$ $\displaystyle \set {p, q, r, s}$

and $f$ is defined as:

$f = \set {\tuple {a, p}, \tuple {b, p}, \tuple {c, q}, \tuple {i, r}, \tuple {j, s}, \tuple {k, s} }$

Thus the images of each of the elements of $S$ under $f$ are:

 $\displaystyle \map f a$ $=$ $\displaystyle \map f b = p$ $\displaystyle \map f c$ $=$ $\displaystyle q$ $\displaystyle \map f i$ $=$ $\displaystyle r$ $\displaystyle \map f j$ $=$ $\displaystyle \map f k = s$ $S$ is the domain of $f$.
$T$ is the codomain of $f$.
$\set {p, q, r, s}$ is the image of $f$.

The preimages of each of the elements of $T$ under $f$ are:

 $\displaystyle \map {f^{-1} } p$ $=$ $\displaystyle \set {a, b}$ $\displaystyle \map {f^{-1} } q$ $=$ $\displaystyle \set c$ $\displaystyle \map {f^{-1} } r$ $=$ $\displaystyle \set i$ $\displaystyle \map {f^{-1} } s$ $=$ $\displaystyle \set {j, k}$

## Also known as

The phrase $f$ is surjective is often used for $f$ is a surjection.

Authors who prefer to limit the jargon of mathematics tend to use the term an onto mapping for a surjection, and onto for surjective.

A mapping which is not surjective is thence described as into.

A surjection $f$ from $S$ to $T$ is sometimes denoted:

$f: S \twoheadrightarrow T$

to emphasize surjectivity.

The $\LaTeX$ code for $f: S \twoheadrightarrow T$ is f: S \twoheadrightarrow T .

## Examples

### Arbitrary Finite Set

Let $S$ and $T$ be sets such that:

 $\displaystyle S$ $=$ $\displaystyle \set {a, b, c}$ $\displaystyle T$ $=$ $\displaystyle \set {x, y}$

Let $f: S \to T$ be the mapping defined as:

 $\displaystyle \map f a$ $=$ $\displaystyle x$ $\displaystyle \map f b$ $=$ $\displaystyle x$ $\displaystyle \map f c$ $=$ $\displaystyle y$

Then $f$ is a surjection.

### Negative Function on Integers

Let $f: \Z \to \Z$ be the mapping defined on the set of integers as:

$\forall x \in \Z: \map f x = -x$

Then $f$ is a surjection.

### Doubling Function on Reals

Let $f: \R \to \R$ be the real function defined as:

$\forall x \in \R: \map f x = 2 x$

Then $f$ is a surjection.

### Floor Function of $\dfrac {x + 1} 2$ on $\Z$

Let $f: \Z \to \Z$ be the mapping defined on the set of integers as:

$\forall x \in \Z: \map f x = \floor {\dfrac {x + 1} 2}$

where $\floor {\, \cdot \,}$ denotes the floor function.

Then $f$ is a surjection, but not an injection.

### $\map f x = \dfrac x 2$ for $x$ Even, $0$ for $x$ Odd

Let $f: \Z \to \Z$ be the mapping defined on the set of integers as:

$\forall x \in \Z: \map f x = \begin{cases} \dfrac x 2 & : x \text { even} \\ 0 & : x \text { odd} \end{cases}$

Then $f$ is a surjection.

## Also see

• Results about surjections can be found here.

## Sources

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