# Definition:Quaternion

## Definition

A **quaternion** is a number in the form:

- $a \mathbf 1 + b \mathbf i + c \mathbf j + d \mathbf k$

where:

- $a, b, c, d$ are real numbers

- $\mathbf 1, \mathbf i, \mathbf j, \mathbf k$ are entities related to each other in the following way:

\(\ds \mathbf i \mathbf j\) | \(=\) | \(\, \ds -\mathbf j \mathbf i \, \) | \(\, \ds = \, \) | \(\ds \mathbf k\) | ||||||||||

\(\ds \mathbf j \mathbf k\) | \(=\) | \(\, \ds -\mathbf k \mathbf j \, \) | \(\, \ds = \, \) | \(\ds \mathbf i\) | ||||||||||

\(\ds \mathbf k \mathbf i\) | \(=\) | \(\, \ds -\mathbf i \mathbf k \, \) | \(\, \ds = \, \) | \(\ds \mathbf j\) | ||||||||||

\(\ds \mathbf i^2 = \mathbf j^2 = \mathbf k^2\) | \(=\) | \(\, \ds \mathbf i \mathbf j \mathbf k \, \) | \(\, \ds = \, \) | \(\ds -\mathbf 1\) |

The set of all **quaternions** is usually denoted $\H$.

### Quaternion Addition

The **sum** of two quaternions $\mathbf x_1 = a_1 \mathbf 1 + b_1 \mathbf i + c_1 \mathbf j + d_1 \mathbf k$ and $\mathbf x_2 = a_2 \mathbf 1 + b_2 \mathbf i + c_2 \mathbf j + d_2 \mathbf k$ is defined as:

- $\mathbf x_1 + \mathbf x_2 := \paren {a_1 + a_2} \mathbf 1 + \paren {b_1 + b_2} \mathbf i + \paren {c_1 + c_2} \mathbf j + \paren {d_1 + d_2} \mathbf k$

### Quaternion Multiplication

The **product** of two quaternions $\mathbf x_1 = a_1 \mathbf 1 + b_1 \mathbf i + c_1 \mathbf j + d_1 \mathbf k$ and $\mathbf x_2 = a_2 \mathbf 1 + b_2 \mathbf i + c_2 \mathbf j + d_2 \mathbf k$ is defined as:

\(\ds \mathbf x_1 \mathbf x_2\) | \(:=\) | \(\ds \paren {a_1 a_2 - b_1 b_2 - c_1 c_2 - d_1 d_2} \mathbf 1\) | ||||||||||||

\(\ds \) | \(\) | \(\, \ds + \, \) | \(\ds \paren {a_1 b_2 + b_1 a_2 + c_1 d_2 - d_1 c_2} \mathbf i\) | |||||||||||

\(\ds \) | \(\) | \(\, \ds + \, \) | \(\ds \paren {a_1 c_2 - b_1 d_2 + c_1 a_2 + d_1 b_2} \mathbf j\) | |||||||||||

\(\ds \) | \(\) | \(\, \ds + \, \) | \(\ds \paren {a_1 d_2 + b_1 c_2 - c_1 b_2 + d_1 a_2} \mathbf k\) |

## Construction from Complex Pairs

A **quaternion** can be defined as an ordered pair $\left({x, y}\right)$ where $x, y \in \C$ are complex numbers, on which the operations of addition and multiplication are defined as follows:

### Quaternion Addition of Complex Pairs

Let $x_1, x_2, y_1, y_2$ be complex numbers.

Then $\tuple {x_1, y_1} + \tuple {x_2, y_2}$ is defined as:

- $\tuple {x_1, y_1} + \tuple {x_2, y_2} := \tuple {x_1 + x_2, y_1 + y_2}$

### Quaternion Multiplication of Complex Pairs

Let $x_1, x_2, y_1, y_2$ be complex numbers.

Then $\tuple {x_1, y_1} \tuple {x_2, y_2}$ is defined as:

- $\tuple {x_1, y_1} \tuple {x_2, y_2} := \tuple {x_1 x_2 - y_2 \overline {y_1}, \overline {x_1} y_2 + y_1 x_2}$

where $\overline {x_1}$ and $\overline {y_1}$ are the complex conjugates of $x_1$ and $y_1$ respectively.

## Construction from Cayley-Dickson Construction

The set of quaternions $\Bbb H$ can be defined by the Cayley-Dickson construction from the set of complex numbers $\C$.

From Complex Numbers form Algebra, $\C$ forms a nicely normed $*$-algebra.

Let $a, b \in \C$.

Then $\tuple {a, b} \in \Bbb H$, where:

- $\tuple {a, b} \tuple {c, d} = \tuple {a c - d \overline b, \overline a d + c b}$
- $\overline {\tuple {a, b} } = \tuple {\overline a, -b}$

where:

- $\overline a$ is the complex conjugate of $a$

and

- $\overline {\tuple {a, b} }$ is the conjugation operation on $\Bbb H$.

It is clear by direct comparison with the Construction from Complex Pairs that this construction genuinely does generate the Quaternions.

## Quaternion Algebra over a Field

An algebra of quaternions can be defined over any field as follows:

Let $\mathbb K$ be a field, and $a$, $b \in \mathbb K$.

Define the **quaternion algebra** $\left\langle{ a,b }\right\rangle_\mathbb K$ to be the $\mathbb K$-vector space with basis $\{1, i, j, k\}$ subject to:

- $i^2 = a$
- $j^2 = b$
- $ij = k = -ji$

Formally this could be achieved as a multiplicative presentation of a suitable group, or as a linear subspace of a finite extension of $\mathbb K$.

Taking $\mathbb K = \R$ and $a = b = -1$ we see that this generalises Hamilton's quaternions.

## Also denoted as

Some sources use $V$ for the **set of quaternions** $\H$.

Some sources develop a more abstract presentation for this structure, and use symbols such as $\lambda_0$, $\lambda_1$, $\lambda_2$ and $\lambda_3$ instead of $\mathbf 1$, $\mathbf i$, $\mathbf j$ and $\mathbf k$.

## Also see

- Ring of Quaternions is Ring, where it is shown that $\H$ forms a ring under the operations of conventional matrix addition and matrix multiplication.

- Quaternions Subring of Complex Matrix Space, where it is shown that $\H$ is a subring of the matrix space $\map {\MM_\C} 2$.

- Quaternions form Skew Field, where is it shown that $\H$ actually forms a skew field under the operations of conventional matrix addition and matrix multiplication.

- Complex Numbers form Subfield of Quaternions, where it is shown that $\C$ is isomorphic to a subfield of $\H$.

- Results about
**quaternions**can be found**here**.

## Historical Note

The **quaternions** were famously conceived by William Rowan Hamilton in $1843$, who was so proud of his flash of insight that he carved:

- $i^2 = j^2 = k^2 = i j k = -1$

into the stone of Brougham Bridge on $16$th October $1843$.

They were introduced as a way of generalizing of the complex numbers in the plane in order to have a tool to model phenomena in $3$ dimensions.

However, it is also worth noting that Carl Friedrich Gauss independently came up with the same concept in $1819$.

## Linguistic Note

The word **quaternion** is derived from the Latin word **quaterni**, meaning **four by four**.

The word quaternion is also used for a style of poem in which the theme is divided into four complementary parts.

It's an awkward word -- the fingers keep trying to type it as **quaternian** which, although it feels more natural, is technically incorrect.

## Sources

- 1970: B. Hartley and T.O. Hawkes:
*Rings, Modules and Linear Algebra*... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $1$: Rings - Definitions and Examples: $2$: Some examples of rings: Ring Example $9$ - 1974: Robert Gilmore:
*Lie Groups, Lie Algebras and Some of their Applications*... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $1$: Introductory Concepts: $1$. Basic Building Blocks: $3$. FIELD - 1992: George F. Simmons:
*Calculus Gems*... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $\text {B}.26$: Extensions of the Complex Number System. Algebras, Quaternions, and Lagrange's Four Squares Theorem - 1998: David Nelson:
*The Penguin Dictionary of Mathematics*(2nd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next):**quaternion** - 2002: John C. Baez:
*The Octonions: 1 Introduction* - 2008: David Nelson:
*The Penguin Dictionary of Mathematics*(4th ed.) ... (previous) ... (next):**quaternion**