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The $18$th letter of the Greek alphabet.

Minuscules: $\sigma$ and $\varsigma$
Majuscule: $\Sigma$

The $\LaTeX$ code for \(\sigma\) is \sigma .
The $\LaTeX$ code for \(\varsigma\) is \varsigma .

The $\LaTeX$ code for \(\Sigma\) is \Sigma .

Event Space


Let $\EE$ be an experiment whose probability space is $\struct {\Omega, \Sigma, \Pr}$.

The event space of $\EE$ is usually denoted $\Sigma$ (Greek capital sigma), and is the set of all outcomes of $\EE$ which are interesting.

By definition, $\struct {\Omega, \Sigma}$ is a measurable space.

Hence the event space $\Sigma$ is a sigma-algebra on $\Omega$.


Let $\struct {S, +}$ be an algebraic structure where the operation $+$ is an operation derived from, or arising from, the addition operation on the natural numbers.

Let $\tuple {a_1, a_2, \ldots, a_n} \in S^n$ be an ordered $n$-tuple in $S$.

The composite is called the summation of $\tuple {a_1, a_2, \ldots, a_n}$, and is written:

$\displaystyle \sum_{j \mathop = 1}^n a_j = \tuple {a_1 + a_2 + \cdots + a_n}$

The $\LaTeX$ code for \(\displaystyle \sum_{j \mathop = 1}^n a_j\) is \displaystyle \sum_{j \mathop = 1}^n a_j .

The $\LaTeX$ code for \(\displaystyle \sum_{1 \mathop \le j \mathop \le n} a_j\) is \displaystyle \sum_{1 \mathop \le j \mathop \le n} a_j .

The $\LaTeX$ code for \(\displaystyle \sum_{\map \Phi j} a_j\) is \displaystyle \sum_{\map \Phi j} a_j .

Sigma Function

$\map \sigma n$

Let $n$ be an integer such that $n \ge 1$.

The sigma function $\map \sigma n$ is defined on $n$ as being the sum of all the positive integer divisors of $n$.

That is:

$\ds \map \sigma n = \sum_{d \mathop \divides n} d$

where $\ds \sum_{d \mathop \divides n}$ is the sum over all divisors of $n$.

The $\LaTeX$ code for \(\map \sigma n\) is \map \sigma n .

Surface Charge Density


Denotes the surface charge density of a given body:

$\sigma = \dfrac q A$


$q$ is the body's electric charge;
$A$ is the body's area.

Area Density


Sometimes used, although $\rho_A$ (Greek letter rho) is more common, to denote the area density of a given two-dimensional body:

$\sigma = \dfrac m A$


$m$ is the body's mass
$A$ is the body's area.

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