# Mathematician:Mathematicians/Sorted By Nation/Netherlands

For more comprehensive information on the lives and works of mathematicians through the ages, see the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, created by John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson.

*The army of those who have made at least one definite contribution to mathematics as we know it soon becomes a mob as we look back over history; 6,000 or 8,000 names press forward for some word from us to preserve them from oblivion, and once the bolder leaders have been recognised it becomes largely a matter of arbitrary, illogical legislation to judge who of the clamouring multitude shall be permitted to survive and who be condemned to be forgotten.'*- -- Eric Temple Bell:
*Men of Mathematics*, 1937, Victor Gollancz, London

- -- Eric Temple Bell:

## Contents

- 1 Holland
- 2 Dutch Republic
- 3 Netherlands
- 3.1 Thomas Joannes Stieltjes (1856 – 1894)
- 3.2 Jan Cornelis Kluyver (1860 – 1932)
- 3.3 Willem Abraham Wythoff (1865 – 1939)
- 3.4 Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer (1881 – 1966)
- 3.5 Hendrik Anthony Kramers (1894 – 1952)
- 3.6 Arend Heyting (1898 – 1980)
- 3.7 Bartel Leendert van der Waerden (1903 – 1996)
- 3.8 Tjalling Charles Koopmans (1910 – 1985)
- 3.9 Nicolaas Govert de Bruijn (1918 – 2012)
- 3.10 Adrianus Johannes Wilhelmus Duijvestijn (1927 – 1998)
- 3.11 Edsger Wybe Dijkstra (1930 – 2002)
- 3.12 Dirk van Dalen (b. 1932 )
- 3.13 Hermanus Johannes Joseph te Riele (b. 1947 )
- 3.14 Hendrik Willem Lenstra Jr. (b. 1949 )
- 3.15 Frits Beukers (b. 1953 )
- 3.16 Arjen Klaas Lenstra (b. 1956 )
- 3.17 Eric Eleterius Coralie van Damme (b. 1956 )

## Holland

##### Adriaan Metius (1571 – 1635)

Dutch geometer and astronomer.

Best known now for his approximation $\dfrac {355} {113}$ for $\pi$ (pi), known to the Chinese and Arabic mathematical traditions centuries earlier.
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##### Willebrord van Royen Snell (1580 – 1626)

Dutch applied mathematician and astronomer who founded the modern science of geodesy, by pioneering the technique of triangulation.

Developed an improved method for determining the value of $\pi$ (pi) using polygons.

Discovered the Sine Law.

Known today for rediscovering the Snell-Descartes Law in 1621, governing the refraction of light. He did not publish himself. It first appeared in 1703 when it was published in Christiaan Huygens' *Dioptrica*.
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## Dutch Republic

##### Johannes van Waveren Hudde (1628 – 1704)

**Johannes Hudde**, also rendered **Johann Hudde** or **Jan Hudde**, was Dutch mathematician, who was also at one time the mayor of Amsterdam and governor of the Dutch East India Company.

Organised the regulation of the waterways of Amsterdam, in the process making major steps towards improvements in sanitation.

Collaborated on a translation into Latin of *La Géométrie* by René Descartes.
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##### Christiaan Huygens (1629 – 1695)

Dutch mathematician, astronomer, physicist and horologist.

Studied the rings of Saturn and discovered its moon Titan.

Invented the pendulum clock.

Believed that light travels in waves, hence the Huygens-Fresnel Principle.
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##### Daniel Bernoulli (1700 – 1782)

Dutch / Swiss mathematician who worked mostly on fluid dynamics, probability theory and statistics.

Considered by many to be the first mathematical physicist.

Son of Johann Bernoulli and the brother of Nicolaus II Bernoulli and Johann II Bernoulli.

Famously suffered from the jealousy and bad temper of his father Johann Bernoulli who, among other unpleasantnesses, tried to steal his *Hydrodynamica* and pass it off as his own, naming it *Hydraulica*.
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##### Pieter Nieuwland (1764 – 1794)

Dutch nautical scientist, chemist, mathematician and poet.

Has been called the Dutch Isaac Newton.

Known for finding the largest cube that can pass through a hole in a unit cube.
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## Netherlands

##### Thomas Joannes Stieltjes (1856 – 1894)

**Thomas Joannes Stieltjes** (whose name is also rendered **Thomas Jan Stieltjes**) was a Dutch mathematician whose main fields of study included continued fractions and measure theory.
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##### Jan Cornelis Kluyver (1860 – 1932)

Dutch mathematician who made important contributions to analysis, number theory and geometry.

Professor at Leiden University between 1892 and 1930.
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##### Willem Abraham Wythoff (1865 – 1939)

Dutch mathematician known for his work in in combinatorial game theory and number theory.

Also known for his work in geometry, in particular for the Wythoff construction of uniform tilings and uniform polyhedra.
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##### Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer (1881 – 1966)

Known to his friends as **Bertus**.

Dutch mathematician working in topology, set theory, measure theory and complex analysis.

Founded the mathematical philosophy of intuitionism.
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##### Hendrik Anthony Kramers (1894 – 1952)

**Hendrik Anthony "Hans" Kramers** was a Dutch physicist who worked with Niels Bohr to understand how electromagnetic waves interact with matter.
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##### Arend Heyting (1898 – 1980)

Dutch mathematician and logician of the Intuitionist school.
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##### Bartel Leendert van der Waerden (1903 – 1996)

Dutch mathematician and historian of mathematics.
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##### Tjalling Charles Koopmans (1910 – 1985)

Dutch American mathematician and economist.
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##### Nicolaas Govert de Bruijn (1918 – 2012)

Dutch mathematician known for his contributions to analysis, number theory, combinatorics and logic.
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##### Adrianus Johannes Wilhelmus Duijvestijn (1927 – 1998)

Dutch computer scientist and mathematician best known for finding the Smallest Perfect Square Dissection.
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##### Edsger Wybe Dijkstra (1930 – 2002)

Hugely influential Dutch pioneer of computer science.
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##### Dirk van Dalen (b. 1932 )

Dutch mathematician and historian of science.
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##### Hermanus Johannes Joseph te Riele (b. 1947 )

Dutch mathematician specializing in computational number theory.

Proving the correctness of the Riemann Hypothesis for the first $1.5$ billion non-trivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function, with Jan van de Lune and Dik Winter.

Disproved the Mertens Conjecture, with Andrew Michael Odlyzko.

Known for factoring large numbers of world record size.

Found a new upper bound for $\pi \left({x}\right) - Li \left({x}\right)$.
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##### Hendrik Willem Lenstra Jr. (b. 1949 )

Dutch mathematician working principally in computational number theory.

Well known as the discoverer of the elliptic curve factorization method.

Co-discoverer of the Lenstra-Lenstra-Lovász Lattice Basis Reduction Algorithm.

The Cohen-Lenstra Heuristics, a set of precise conjectures about the structure of class groups of quadratic fields, is named after him.
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##### Frits Beukers (b. 1953 )

Dutch mathematician, who works on number theory and hypergeometric functions.
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##### Arjen Klaas Lenstra (b. 1956 )

Dutch mathematician active in cryptography and computational number theory, especially in areas such as integer factorization.

Co-discoverer of the Lenstra-Lenstra-Lovász Lattice Basis Reduction Algorithm.
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##### Eric Eleterius Coralie van Damme (b. 1956 )

Dutch economist known for his contributions to game theory.
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