10

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Number

$10$ (ten) is:

$2 \times 5$


The $1$st power of $10$ after the zeroth $1$:
$10 = 10^1$


The $2$nd number after $5$ to be the sum of two different squares:
$10 = 1^2 + 3^2$


The $4$th semiprime after $4$, $6$, $9$:
$10 = 2 \times 5$


The $3$rd number after $2$ and $6$ that is not the difference of two squares, as it is of the form $4 n + 2$:
$10 = 4 \times 2 + 2$


The $4$th triangular number after $1$, $3$, $6$:
$10 = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = \dfrac {4 \left({4 + 1}\right)} 2$


The only triangular number which is the sum of consecutive odd squares:
$10 = 1^2 + 3^2$


The $3$rd tetrahedral number after $1$, $4$:
$10 = 1 + 3 + 6 = \dfrac {3 \left({3 + 1}\right) \left({3 + 2}\right)} 6$


The $2$nd after $1$ of the $5$ tetrahedral numbers which are also triangular


The $7$th highly abundant number after $1$, $2$, $3$, $4$, $6$, $8$:
$\sigma \left({10}\right) = 18$


The $3$rd happy number after $1$, $7$:
$10 \to 1^2 + 0^2 = 1$


The $4$th term of Göbel's sequence after $1$, $2$, $3$, $5$:
$10 = \left({1 + 1^2 + 2^2 + 3^2 + 5^2}\right) / 4$


Probably the only number (except for the obvious $\left({n!}\right)! = n! \left({n! - 1}\right)!$ whose factorial is the product of $2$ factorials:
$10! = 7! \, 6!$
and so consequently:
$10! = 7! \, 5! \, 3!$


The smallest noncototient:
$\nexists m \in \Z_{>0}: m - \phi \left({m}\right) = 10$
where $\phi \left({m}\right)$ denotes the Euler $\phi$ function


The second positive integer after $1$ which is not the sum of a square and a prime:
$10 = 1 + 9 = 4 + 6 = 9 + 1$: none of $1$, $6$ and $9$ are prime


The smallest positive integer with multiplicative persistence of $1$


The base of the decimal system


The $8$th (strictly) positive integer after $1$, $2$, $3$, $4$, $6$, $7$, $9$ which cannot be expressed as the sum of exactly $5$ non-zero squares


The $5$th even number after $2$, $4$, $6$, $8$ which cannot be expressed as the sum of $2$ composite odd numbers


The $1$st positive integer which can be expressed as the sum of $2$ odd primes in $2$ ways:
$10 = 3 + 7 = 5 + 5$


The $2$nd positive integer which cannot be expressed as the sum of a square and a prime:
$1$, $10$, $\ldots$


The $1$st non-square positive integer which cannot be expressed as the sum of a square and a prime


The $7$th positive integer after $2$, $3$, $4$, $7$, $8$, $9$ which cannot be expressed as the sum of distinct pentagonal numbers


The $10$th harshad number after $1$, $2$, $3$, $4$, $5$, $6$, $7$, $8$, $9$:
$10 = 10 \times 1 = 10 \times \left({1 + 0}\right)$


The total of all the entries in a magic square of order $2$ (if it were to exist), after $1$:
$10 = \displaystyle \sum_{k \mathop = 1}^{2^2} k = \dfrac {2^2 \paren {2^2 + 1} } 2$


The $3$rd of $4$ numbers whose letters, when spelt in French, are in alphabetical order:
dix


Also see


Previous in sequence: $1$


Previous in sequence: $4$


Previous in sequence: $5$


Previous in sequence: $6$


Previous in sequence: $7$


Previous in sequence: $8$


Previous in sequence: $9$


Next in sequence: $25$ and above


Historical Note

Aristotle made the obvious statement that $10$ is the usual number base because we have $10$ fingers. This view was echoed by the Roman poet Ovid.

It is noted that not all cultures use $10$ -- some use $5$ (based on the number of fingers on a single hand) and some use $20$ (based on the total number of fingers and toes).


The number $10$ was considered holy by the Pythagoreans, who set great score to the fact that $10 = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4$.


The number $10$ is expressed in Roman numerals as $\mathrm X$.

It has been suggested that this originates from:

joining up two $\mathrm V$s, each representing $2$ hands held up showing the full $5$ fingers

or:

an abbreviation for $10$ tally marks, with a line struck through them to indicate that $10$ had been reached.


Sources