Help:LaTeX Editing

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This page is about technical instructions. For stylistic remarks on $\LaTeX$ editing, see Help:Editing/House Style/Mathematical Symbols

$\LaTeX$ Editing

In general, contributors are assumed to be up to speed with some form of $\LaTeX$; a web search should be sufficient to find ample reference on how to get started with it, should you still need to.

The "External references" section below may also be consulted.


The $\LaTeX$ interpreter used on this site is brought to you by MathJax.

This produces an experience different from that produced by the MediaWiki interpreter which is (at time of writing) the one used by Wikipedia and other places.

It also has a subtly different syntax in places. Specific instances will be detailed where relevant.


$\LaTeX$ delimiters

To display an equation in line with some text, the equation should be enclosed in single dollar signs: $ ... $

Note that \( ... \) also works, but takes more effort to type and so is less recommended.

There may (but we hope not) still be some pages with <math> ... </math> in them. This is a holdover from when MediaWiki was the interpreter used for $\LaTeX$ commands. It still works in MathJax after a fashion but on transcluded pages, such enclosed $\LaTeX$ will not be converted to mathematical symbols.

If you see any, then feel free to change them to $ signs, as they should not be there.


No longer supported

The following $\LaTeX$ commands are not supported in MathJax, but may still be present in some pages. When found they need to be replaced.

For $\lor$: \or to be replaced by \lor
For $\land$: \and to be replaced by \land
For $\R$: \reals to be replaced by \R
For $\varnothing$: \O to be replaced by \varnothing
For $\exists$: \exist to be replaced by \exists


For producing fixed width text in math mode: \texttt needs to be replaced by \mathtt.

If you find any more examples, add them here.


New commands

New commands can be requested and discussed at Symbols:LaTeX Commands/ProofWiki Specific, transcluded here:

\(\Add\) $\quad:\quad$\Add $\qquad$Addition as a Primitive Recursive Function‎
\(\adj {\mathbf A}\) $\quad:\quad$\adj {\mathbf A} $\qquad$Adjugate Matrix
\(\arccot\) $\quad:\quad$\arccot $\qquad$Arccotangent
\(\arccsc\) $\quad:\quad$\arccsc $\qquad$Arccosecant
\(\arcsec\) $\quad:\quad$\arcsec $\qquad$Arcsecant
\(\Area\) $\quad:\quad$\Area $\qquad$Area of Plane Figure
\(\Arg z\) $\quad:\quad$\Arg z $\qquad$Principal Argument of Complex Number
\(\Aut {S}\) $\quad:\quad$\Aut {S} $\qquad$Automorphism Group
\(\Bernoulli {p}\) $\quad:\quad$\Bernoulli {p} $\qquad$Bernoulli Distribution
\(\BetaDist {\alpha} {\beta}\) $\quad:\quad$\BetaDist {\alpha} {\beta} $\qquad$Beta Distribution
\(\bigintlimits {\map f s} {s \mathop = 0} {s \mathop = a}\) $\quad:\quad$\bigintlimits {\map f s} {s \mathop = 0} {s \mathop = a} $\qquad$Limits of Integration
\(\Binomial {n} {p}\) $\quad:\quad$\Binomial {n} {p} $\qquad$Binomial Distribution
\(\bsDelta\) $\quad:\quad$\bsDelta $\qquad$a vector '$\Delta$'
\(\bsone\) $\quad:\quad$\bsone $\qquad$vector of ones
\(\bst\) $\quad:\quad$\bst $\qquad$a vector 't'
\(\bsv\) $\quad:\quad$\bsv $\qquad$a vector 'v'
\(\bsw\) $\quad:\quad$\bsw $\qquad$a vector 'w'
\(\bsx\) $\quad:\quad$\bsx $\qquad$a vector 'x'
\(\bsy\) $\quad:\quad$\bsy $\qquad$a vector 'y'
\(\bsz\) $\quad:\quad$\bsz $\qquad$a vector 'z'
\(\bszero\) $\quad:\quad$\bszero $\qquad$vector of zeros
\(\map \Card {S}\) $\quad:\quad$\map \Card {S} $\qquad$Cardinality
\(\card {S}\) $\quad:\quad$\card {S} $\qquad$Cardinality
\(\Cauchy {x_0} {\gamma}\) $\quad:\quad$\Cauchy {x_0} {\gamma} $\qquad$Cauchy Distribution
\(\Cdm {f}\) $\quad:\quad$\Cdm {f} $\qquad$Codomain of Mapping
\(\ceiling {11.98}\) $\quad:\quad$\ceiling {11.98} $\qquad$Ceiling Function
\(30 \cels\) $\quad:\quad$30 \cels $\qquad$Degrees Celsius
\(\Char {R}\) $\quad:\quad$\Char {R} $\qquad$Characteristic of Ring, etc.
\(\Ci\) $\quad:\quad$\Ci $\qquad$Cosine Integral Function
\(\cis \theta\) $\quad:\quad$\cis \theta $\qquad$$\cos \theta + i \sin \theta$
\(\cl S\) $\quad:\quad$\cl S $\qquad$Closure (Topology)
\(\closedint {a} {b}\) $\quad:\quad$\closedint {a} {b} $\qquad$Closed Interval
\(\cmod {z^2}\) $\quad:\quad$\cmod {z^2} $\qquad$Complex Modulus
\(\conjclass {x}\) $\quad:\quad$\conjclass {x} $\qquad$Conjugacy Class
\(\cont {f}\) $\quad:\quad$\cont {f} $\qquad$Content of Polynomial
\(\ContinuousUniform {a} {v}\) $\quad:\quad$\ContinuousUniform {a} {v} $\qquad$Continuous Uniform Distribution
\(\cosec\) $\quad:\quad$\cosec $\qquad$Cosecant (alternative form)
\(\Cosh\) $\quad:\quad$\Cosh $\qquad$Hyperbolic Cosine
\(\Coth\) $\quad:\quad$\Coth $\qquad$Hyperbolic Cotangent
\(\csch\) $\quad:\quad$\csch $\qquad$Hyperbolic Cosecant
\(\Csch\) $\quad:\quad$\Csch $\qquad$Hyperbolic Cosecant
\(\dfrac {\d x} {\d y}\) $\quad:\quad$\dfrac {\d x} {\d y} $\qquad$Roman $\d$ for Derivatives
\(30 \degrees\) $\quad:\quad$30 \degrees $\qquad$Degrees of Arc
\(\Dic n\) $\quad:\quad$\Dic n $\qquad$Dicyclic Group
\(\DiscreteUniform {n}\) $\quad:\quad$\DiscreteUniform {n} $\qquad$Discrete Uniform Distribution
\(a \divides b\) $\quad:\quad$a \divides b $\qquad$Divisibility
\(\Dom {f}\) $\quad:\quad$\Dom {f} $\qquad$Domain of Mapping
\(\dr {a}\) $\quad:\quad$\dr {a} $\qquad$Digital Root
\(\E\) $\quad:\quad$\E $\qquad$Euler's number
\(\Ei\) $\quad:\quad$\Ei $\qquad$Exponential Integral Function
\(\empty\) $\quad:\quad$\empty $\qquad$Empty Set
\(\eqclass {x} {\mathcal R}\) $\quad:\quad$\eqclass {x} {\mathcal R} $\qquad$Equivalence Class
\(\erf\) $\quad:\quad$\erf $\qquad$Error Function
\(\erfc\) $\quad:\quad$\erfc $\qquad$Complementary Error Function
\(\expect {X}\) $\quad:\quad$\expect {X} $\qquad$Expectation
\(\Exponential {\beta}\) $\quad:\quad$\Exponential {\beta} $\qquad$Exponential Distribution
\(\F\) $\quad:\quad$\F\FF $\qquad$Galois Field
\(30 \fahr\) $\quad:\quad$30 \fahr $\qquad$Degrees Fahrenheit
\(\family {S_i}\) $\quad:\quad$\family {S_i} $\qquad$Indexed Family
\(\Fix {\pi}\) $\quad:\quad$\Fix {\pi} $\qquad$Set of Fixed Elements
\(\floor {11.98}\) $\quad:\quad$\floor {11.98} $\qquad$Floor Function
\(\fractpart {x}\) $\quad:\quad$\fractpart {x} $\qquad$Fractional Part
\(\Frob {R}\) $\quad:\quad$\Frob {R} $\qquad$Frobenius Endomorphism
\(\Gal {S}\) $\quad:\quad$\Gal {S} $\qquad$Galois Group
\(\Gaussian {\mu} {\sigma^2}\) $\quad:\quad$\Gaussian {\mu} {\sigma^2} $\qquad$Gaussian Distribution
\(\gen {S}\) $\quad:\quad$\gen {S} $\qquad$Generator
\(\Geometric {p}\) $\quad:\quad$\Geometric {p} $\qquad$Geometric Distribution
\(\GL {n, \R}\) $\quad:\quad$\GL {n, \R} $\qquad$General Linear Group
\(\grad {p}\) $\quad:\quad$\grad {p} $\qquad$Gradient
\(\hcf\) $\quad:\quad$\hcf $\qquad$Highest Common Factor
\(\H\) $\quad:\quad$\H $\qquad$Set of Quaternions
\(\HH\) $\quad:\quad$\HH $\qquad$Hilbert Space
\(\hointl {a} {b}\) $\quad:\quad$\hointl {a} {b} $\qquad$Left Half-Open Interval
\(\hointr {a} {b}\) $\quad:\quad$\hointr {a} {b} $\qquad$Right Half-Open Interval
\(\ideal {a}\) $\quad:\quad$\ideal {a} $\qquad$Ideal of Ring
\(\map \Im z\) $\quad:\quad$\map \Im z $\qquad$Imaginary Part
\(\Img {f}\) $\quad:\quad$\Img {f} $\qquad$Image of Mapping
\(\index {G} {H}\) $\quad:\quad$\index {G} {H} $\qquad$Index of Subgroup
\(\inj\) $\quad:\quad$\inj $\qquad$Canonical Injection
\(\Inn {S}\) $\quad:\quad$\Inn {S} $\qquad$Group of Inner Automorphisms
\(\innerprod {x} {y}\) $\quad:\quad$\innerprod {x} {y} $\qquad$Inner Product
\(\intlimits {\dfrac {\map f s} s} {s \mathop = 1} {s \mathop = a}\) $\quad:\quad$\intlimits {\dfrac {\map f s} s} {s \mathop = 1} {s \mathop = a} $\qquad$Limits of Integration
\(\invlaptrans {F}\) $\quad:\quad$\invlaptrans {F} $\qquad$Inverse Laplace Transform
\(\laptrans {f}\) $\quad:\quad$\laptrans {f} $\qquad$Laplace Transform
\(\lcm \set {x, y, z}\) $\quad:\quad$\lcm \set {x, y, z} $\qquad$Lowest Common Multiple
\(\leadstoandfrom\) $\quad:\quad$\leadstoandfrom
\(\len {AB}\) $\quad:\quad$\len {AB} $\qquad$Length Function: various
\(\Ln\) $\quad:\quad$\Ln $\qquad$Principal Branch of Complex Natural Logarithm
\(\Log\) $\quad:\quad$\Log $\qquad$Principal Branch of Complex Natural Logarithm
\(\map {f} {x}\) $\quad:\quad$\map {f} {x} $\qquad$Mapping or Function
\(\Mult\) $\quad:\quad$\Mult $\qquad$Multiplication as a Primitive Recursive Function‎
\(\NegativeBinomial {n} {p}\) $\quad:\quad$\NegativeBinomial {n} {p} $\qquad$Negative Binomial Distribution
\(\Nil {R}\) $\quad:\quad$\Nil {R} $\qquad$Nilradical of Ring
\(\norm {z^2}\) $\quad:\quad$\norm {z^2} $\qquad$Norm
\(\O\) $\quad:\quad$\O $\qquad$Empty Set
\(\On\) $\quad:\quad$\On $\qquad$Ordinal Class
\(\openint {a} {b}\) $\quad:\quad$\openint {a} {b} $\qquad$Open Interval
\(\Orb S\) $\quad:\quad$\Orb S $\qquad$Orbit
\(\order {G}\) $\quad:\quad$\order {G} $\qquad$Order of Structure, and so on
\(\Out {G}\) $\quad:\quad$\Out {G} $\qquad$Group of Outer Automorphisms
\(\paren {a + b + c}\) $\quad:\quad$\paren {a + b + c} $\qquad$Parenthesis
\(\Poisson {\lambda}\) $\quad:\quad$\Poisson {\lambda} $\qquad$Poisson Distribution
\(\polar {r, \theta}\) $\quad:\quad$\polar {r, \theta} $\qquad$Polar Form of Complex Number
\(\powerset {S}\) $\quad:\quad$\powerset {S} $\qquad$Power Set
\(\Preimg {f}\) $\quad:\quad$\Preimg {f} $\qquad$Preimage of Mapping
\(\pr_j \paren {F}\) $\quad:\quad$\pr_j \paren {F} $\qquad$Projection
\(\PV\) $\quad:\quad$\PV $\qquad$Cauchy Principal Value
\(\radians\) $\quad:\quad$\radians $\qquad$Radian
\(\displaystyle \int \map f x \rd x\) $\quad:\quad$\displaystyle \int \map f x \rd x $\qquad$Roman $\d$ for use in Integrals
\(\rD\) $\quad:\quad$\rD $\qquad$Differential Operator
\(y \rdelta x\) $\quad:\quad$y \rdelta x $\qquad$$\delta$ operator for use in sums
\(\map \Re z\) $\quad:\quad$\map \Re z $\qquad$Real Part
\(\relcomp {S} {A}\) $\quad:\quad$\relcomp {S} {A} $\qquad$Relative Complement
\(\rem\) $\quad:\quad$\rem $\qquad$Remainder
\(\Res {f} {z_0}\) $\quad:\quad$\Res {f} {z_0} $\qquad$Residue
\(\Rng {f}\) $\quad:\quad$\Rng {f} $\qquad$Range of Mapping
\(\sech\) $\quad:\quad$\sech $\qquad$Hyperbolic Secant
\(\Sech\) $\quad:\quad$\Sech $\qquad$Hyperbolic Secant
\(\sequence {a_n}\) $\quad:\quad$\sequence {a_n} $\qquad$Sequence
\(\set {a, b, c}\) $\quad:\quad$\set {a, b, c} $\qquad$Conventional set notation
\(\ShiftedGeometric {p}\) $\quad:\quad$\ShiftedGeometric {p} $\qquad$Shifted Geometric Distribution
\(\Si\) $\quad:\quad$\Si $\qquad$Sine Integral Function
\(\Sinh\) $\quad:\quad$\Sinh $\qquad$Hyperbolic Sine
\(\size {x}\) $\quad:\quad$\size {x} $\qquad$Absolute Value, and so on
\(\SL {n, \R}\) $\quad:\quad$\SL {n, \R} $\qquad$Special Linear Group
\(\Spec {R}\) $\quad:\quad$\Spec {R} $\qquad$Spectrum of Ring
\(\sqbrk {a} \) $\quad:\quad$\sqbrk {a}
\(\Stab x\) $\quad:\quad$\Stab x $\qquad$Stabilizer
\(\struct {G, \circ}\) $\quad:\quad$\struct {G, \circ} $\qquad$Algebraic Structure
\(\StudentT {k}\) $\quad:\quad$\StudentT {k} $\qquad$Student's t-Distribution
\(\Succ\) $\quad:\quad$\Succ $\qquad$Successor Function
\(\Syl {p} {N}\) $\quad:\quad$\Syl {p} {N} $\qquad$Sylow $p$-Subgroup
\(\Tanh\) $\quad:\quad$\Tanh $\qquad$Hyperbolic Tangent
\(\tr\) $\quad:\quad$\tr $\qquad$Trace
\(\tuple {a, b, c}\) $\quad:\quad$\tuple {a, b, c} $\qquad$Ordered Tuple
\(\var {X}\) $\quad:\quad$\var {X} $\qquad$Variance


Aligned Equations

To include aligned equations, a set of templates has been written: begin-eqn, eqn and end-eqn.

For more explanation, see Template:eqn.


Known issues

See Problem with Eqn template.


Specific Topics

Commutative diagrams

See Help:Commutative Diagrams


External references and manuals

It may not be exactly the same version of $\LaTeX$, but I always find this page helpful as a first, quick overview:

This is also a good reference page, pertaining to MediaWiki $\LaTeX$:

but be aware that not all commands are supported.

This is a link of all the currently supported commands available: