# Mathematician:Mathematicians/Sorted By Nation/Russia

For more comprehensive information on the lives and works of mathematicians through the ages, see the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, created by John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson.

*The army of those who have made at least one definite contribution to mathematics as we know it soon becomes a mob as we look back over history; 6,000 or 8,000 names press forward for some word from us to preserve them from oblivion, and once the bolder leaders have been recognised it becomes largely a matter of arbitrary, illogical legislation to judge who of the clamouring multitude shall be permitted to survive and who be condemned to be forgotten.'*- -- Eric Temple Bell:
*Men of Mathematics*, 1937, Victor Gollancz, London

- -- Eric Temple Bell:

## Contents

- 1 Estonia
- 2 Russia
- 2.1 Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky (1792 – 1856)
- 2.2 Pafnuty Lvovich Chebyshev (1821 – 1894)
- 2.3 Ivan Mikheevich Pervushin (1827 – 1900)
- 2.4 Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor (1845 – 1918)
- 2.5 Sofia Vasilyevna Kovalevskaya (1850 – 1891)
- 2.6 Evgraf Stepanovich Fedorov (1853 – 1919)
- 2.7 Andrey Andreyevich Markov (1856 – 1922)
- 2.8 Aleksandr Mikhailovich Lyapunov (1857 – 1918)
- 2.9 Dmitri Fyodorovich Egorov (1869 – 1931)
- 2.10 Vladimir Andreyevich Markov (1871 – 1897)
- 2.11 Sergei Natanovich Bernstein (1880 – 1968)
- 2.12 Solomon Lefschetz (1884 – 1972)
- 2.13 Vladimir Ivanovich Smirnov (1887 – 1974)
- 2.14 Ivan Matveevich Vinogradov (1891 – 1983)
- 2.15 Aleksandr Yakovlevich Khinchin (1894 – 1959)
- 2.16 Pavel Sergeyevich Alexandrov (1896 – 1982)
- 2.17 Oscar Zariski (1899 – 1986)
- 2.18 Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov (1903 – 1987)
- 2.19 Alexander Osipovich Gelfond (1906 – 1968)
- 2.20 Andrey Nikolayevich Tychonoff (1906 – 1993)
- 2.21 Emma Markovna Lehmer (1906 – 2007)
- 2.22 Boris Anastasyevich Kordemsky (1907 – 1999)
- 2.23 Meyer Abraham Girshick (1908 – 1955)

- 3 Ukraine
- 3.1 Viktor Yakovlevich Bunyakovsky (1804 – 1889)
- 3.2 Samuil Osipovich Shatunovsky (1859 – 1929)
- 3.3 Alexander Markowich Ostrowski (1893 – 1986)
- 3.4 Valery Ivanovich Glivenko (1897 – 1940)
- 3.5 Pavel Samuilovich Urysohn (1898 – 1924)
- 3.6 Israel Moiseevich Gelfand (1913 – 2009)
- 3.7 Yuri Vladimirovich Linnik (1915 – 1972)

- 4 Lithuania
- 5 Belarus
- 6 U.S.S.R.
- 6.1 Andrey Andreyevich Markov Jr. (1903 – 1979)
- 6.2 Lev Semenovich Pontryagin (1908 – 1988)
- 6.3 Sergei Lvovich Sobolev (1908 – 1989)
- 6.4 Sergei Vasilovich Fomin (1917 – 1975)
- 6.5 Leon Mirsky (1918 – 1983)
- 6.6 Vladimir Abramovich Rokhlin (1919 – 1984)
- 6.7 Isaac Asimov (1920 – 1992)
- 6.8 Victor Abramovich Zalgaller (b. 1920 )
- 6.9 Isaak Moiseyevich Yaglom (1921 – 1988)
- 6.10 Akiva Moiseyevich Yaglom (1921 – 2007)
- 6.11 Yurii Mikhailovich Smirnov (1921 – 2007)
- 6.12 Olga Aleksandrovna Ladyzhenskaya (1922 – 2004)
- 6.13 Maks Aizikovich Akivis (b. 1923 )
- 6.14 Eugene Borisovich Dynkin (b. 1924 )
- 6.15 Yuri Ivanovitch Manin (b. 1937 )
- 6.16 Vladimir Igorevich Arnold (1937 – 2010)
- 6.17 Yuri Vladimirovich Matiyasevich (b. 1947 )
- 6.18 Svetlana Katok (b. 1947 )
- 6.19 Leonid Anatolievich Levin (b. 1948 )
- 6.20 Boris Iosifovich Zilber (b. 1949 )
- 6.21 Grigori Yakovlevich Perelman (b. 1966 )

## Estonia

##### Magnus Georg Paucker (1787 – 1855)

Russian astronomer and physicist best known for his construction of the regular $257$-gon using a compass and straightedge.
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## Russia

##### Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky (1792 – 1856)

Known as "the Copernicus of geometry", for his development of a non-Euclidean geometry, that is, one which does not use the parallel postulate.
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##### Pafnuty Lvovich Chebyshev (1821 – 1894)

Russian mathematician whose work was mainly in the fields of probability, statistics and number theory.

He is best known for proving Bertrand's Postulate in $1850$. It has since been known as the Bertrand-Chebyshev Theorem.
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##### Ivan Mikheevich Pervushin (1827 – 1900)

Full name in Russian: **Иван Михеевич Первушин**.

Russian priest, who worked in number theory in his spare time.

Most famous for demonstrating the primality of the Mersenne number $M_{61}$, which then became known as Pervushin's number.
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##### Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor (1845 – 1918)

**Georg Cantor** is the creator of set theory.

He established the importance of correspondence between sets and helped to define the concepts of infinity and well-ordered sets.

He is also famous for stating and proving Cantor's Theorem.
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##### Sofia Vasilyevna Kovalevskaya (1850 – 1891)

In Russian: **Со́фья Васи́льевна Ковале́вская**.

The first female Russian mathematician of record.

Made contributions to analysis, differential equations and mechanics.
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##### Evgraf Stepanovich Fedorov (1853 – 1919)

Russian mathematician, crystallographer and mineralogist.

Best known in the mathematics world for enumerating the $3$-dimensional space groups, now known as the Fedorov groups.
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##### Andrey Andreyevich Markov (1856 – 1922)

Russian mathematician best known for his work on stochastic processes.
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##### Aleksandr Mikhailovich Lyapunov (1857 – 1918)

In Russian: **Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Ляпуно́в**.

Russian mathematician, mechanician and physicist, known for his development of the stability theory of a dynamical system, as well as for his many contributions to mathematical physics and probability theory.
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##### Dmitri Fyodorovich Egorov (1869 – 1931)

**Dmitri Fyodorovich Egorov** (Russian: **Дмитрий Фёдорович Егоров**) was a Russian mathematician is noted for his contributions to differential geometry and analysis.

His religious views caused him to fall foul of the Soviet regime and he died as a result of a hunger strike he embarked upon while in prison for being a "religious sectarian".
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##### Vladimir Andreyevich Markov (1871 – 1897)

Russian mathematician noted for the solution of the Markov Brothers' Inequality, with his elder brother Andrey Andreyevich Markov.

Died of tuberculosis at the tragically young age of 25.
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##### Sergei Natanovich Bernstein (1880 – 1968)

Russian mathematician known for contributions to partial differential equations, differential geometry, probability theory, and approximation theory
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##### Solomon Lefschetz (1884 – 1972)

Russian-born American mathematician who did fundamental work on algebraic topology, its applications to algebraic geometry, and the theory of non-linear ordinary differential equations.
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##### Vladimir Ivanovich Smirnov (1887 – 1974)

In Russian: **Влади́мир Ива́нович Смирно́в**.

Contributed significantly to several areas of pure and applied mathematics. Best known for his 5-volume textbook *A Course in Higher Mathematics* which was widely used.
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##### Ivan Matveevich Vinogradov (1891 – 1983)

Sometimes rendered **Ivan Matveyevich Vinogradov**. In Russian: **Иван Матвеевич Виноградов**.

One of the creators of the field of analytic number theory.
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##### Aleksandr Yakovlevich Khinchin (1894 – 1959)

**Алекса́ндр Я́ковлевич Хи́нчин**, rendered in French as **Alexandre Khintchine**, was a Russian mathematician who was an important figure in the field of probability theory.
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##### Pavel Sergeyevich Alexandrov (1896 – 1982)

Russian mathematician who made considerable contributions in the fields of set theory and topology.

The first to introduce the concept of a kernel of a homomorphism.
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##### Oscar Zariski (1899 – 1986)

Russian-born mathematician, originally **Oscher** (or **Ascher**) **Zaritsky**.

Highly influential in the fields of algebraic geometry and topology.
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##### Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov (1903 – 1987)

In Russian: **Андрей Николаевич Колмогоров**).

Russian mathematician active in various fields, including probability theory, topology and intuitionistic logic.
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##### Alexander Osipovich Gelfond (1906 – 1968)

Russian mathematician and prolific writer (Russian: **Алекса́ндр О́сипович Ге́льфонд**) best known for the Gelfond-Schneider Theorem.

Established in $1929$ that $e^\pi$ is transcendental.
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##### Andrey Nikolayevich Tychonoff (1906 – 1993)

Russian mathematician best known for his work in topology.
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##### Emma Markovna Lehmer (1906 – 2007)

**Emma Markovna Lehmer** (née **Trotskaia**) was a Russian-born mathematician active mainly in the field of number theory.

The wife of Derrick Henry ("Dick") Lehmer, with whom she was a frequent collaborator.
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##### Boris Anastasyevich Kordemsky (1907 – 1999)

Russian mathematician and educator, best known for his popular science books and mathematical puzzles.
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##### Meyer Abraham Girshick (1908 – 1955)

Russian mathematician who worked in game theory.
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## Ukraine

##### Viktor Yakovlevich Bunyakovsky (1804 – 1889)

Ukrainian mathematician best known for his contribution to the Cauchy-Bunyakovsky-Schwarz Inequality.
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##### Samuil Osipovich Shatunovsky (1859 – 1929)

Ukrainian mathematician who focused on several topics in mathematical analysis and algebra, such as group theory, number theory and geometry.
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##### Alexander Markowich Ostrowski (1893 – 1986)

Full name in Russian: **Алекса́ндр Ма́ркович Остро́вский**.

Contributed towards the fields of determinants, linear algebra, algebraic equations, multivariate algebra, formal algebra, number theory, geometry, topology, convergence, theory of real functions, differential equations, differential transformations, theory of complex functions, conformal mappings, numerical analysis and others.
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##### Valery Ivanovich Glivenko (1897 – 1940)

Ukrainian mathematician who worked in foundations of mathematics, real analysis, probability theory, and mathematical statistics
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##### Pavel Samuilovich Urysohn (1898 – 1924)

Ukrainian mathematician mainly working in analysis and topology.

Introduced the concept of compactness with Pavel Alexandrov in 1923.

Drowned in rough seas while swimming off the coast of France.
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##### Israel Moiseevich Gelfand (1913 – 2009)

Soviet and Russian mathematician who contributed considerably to many branches of mathematics, including group theory, representation theory and linear algebra.

Did much good work in the field of education.
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##### Yuri Vladimirovich Linnik (1915 – 1972)

Soviet mathematician active in number theory, probability theory and mathematical statistics.
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## Lithuania

##### Hermann Minkowski (1864 – 1909)

Created and developed the field of geometry of numbers.
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##### David Borwein (b. 1924 )

Canadian mathematician of Lithuanian origin, best known for his research in the summability theory of series and integrals.

Also working in measure theory and probability theory, number theory, and approximate subgradients and coderivatives, and the properties of single- and many-variable sinc integrals.
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## Belarus

##### Issai Schur (1875 – 1941)

Jewish mathematician of Russian descent working mainly in group theory and combinatorics.

Worked most of his life in Germany, then emigrated to Palestine in 1939 as a result of political persecution, and died a pauper.
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##### Rodion Osievich Kuzmin (1891 – 1949)

Russian mathematician, known for his works in number theory and analysis.
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##### Naum Ilyich Akhiezer (1901 – 1980)

Russian mathematician, known for his works in approximation theory and the theory of differential and integral operators.
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##### Regina Iosifovna Tyshkevich (b. 1929 )

**Регина Иосифовна Тышкевич** is an expert in graph theory.

Her main scientific interests include intersection graphs, degree sequences, and the reconstruction conjecture.

Also known for co-inventing split graphs and for her contributions to line graphs of hypergraphs.
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## U.S.S.R.

##### Andrey Andreyevich Markov Jr. (1903 – 1979)

Soviet mathematician working in the fields of topology, mathematical logic and several others.
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##### Lev Semenovich Pontryagin (1908 – 1988)

**Lev Semenovich Pontryagin** (Russian: **Лев Семёнович Понтрягин**) made major discoveries, mainly in the field of geometric topology.
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##### Sergei Lvovich Sobolev (1908 – 1989)

**Sergei Lvovich Sobolev** (Russian: **Серге́й Льво́вич Со́болев**) worked mainly in the fields of analysis and partial differential equations.
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##### Sergei Vasilovich Fomin (1917 – 1975)

Russian mathematician best known for his contribution towards the book *Introductory Real Analysis*.
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##### Leon Mirsky (1918 – 1983)

Russian-born mathematician who worked mainly in the fields of number theory, linear algebra and combinatorics
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##### Vladimir Abramovich Rokhlin (1919 – 1984)

Name in Russian: **Владимир Абрамович Рохлин**.

Noted for his work in topology.
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##### Isaac Asimov (1920 – 1992)

Russian-born professor of biochemistry, best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books.

One of the most hugely prolific and influential writers of all time.
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##### Victor Abramovich Zalgaller (b. 1920 )

Russian mathematician, working in the fields of geometry and optimization.

Best known for his results on convex polyhedra, linear and dynamic programming, isoperimetry, and differential geometry.
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##### Isaak Moiseyevich Yaglom (1921 – 1988)

**Исаа́к Моисе́евич Ягло́м** was a Soviet Russian mathematician whose wrote many popular works.

The twin brother of Akiva Moiseyevich Yaglom.
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##### Akiva Moiseyevich Yaglom (1921 – 2007)

**Аки́ва Моисе́евич Ягло́м** was a Soviet Russian physicist, mathematician, statistician, and meteorologist, best known for his contributions to the statistical theory of turbulence and theory of random processes.

The twin brother of Isaak Moiseyevich Yaglom.
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##### Yurii Mikhailovich Smirnov (1921 – 2007)

**Юрий Михайлович Смирнов** was a Russian mathematician who specialised in topology.
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##### Olga Aleksandrovna Ladyzhenskaya (1922 – 2004)

Russian mathematician known for her work on partial differential equations (especially Hilbert's nineteenth problem) and fluid dynamics.
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##### Maks Aizikovich Akivis (b. 1923 )

Russian mathematician who worked mainly in the fields of differential geometry and linear algebra.

Student of Israel Moiseevich Gelfand.
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##### Eugene Borisovich Dynkin (b. 1924 )

Russian mathematician (**Евге́ний Бори́сович Ды́нкин**), whose work is in probability and algebra.
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##### Yuri Ivanovitch Manin (b. 1937 )

Russian-born mathematician, known for work in algebraic geometry and diophantine geometry.

Also known for the colossal breadth of published works.
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##### Vladimir Igorevich Arnold (1937 – 2010)

In Russian: **Влади́мир И́горевич Арно́льд**.

Soviet Russian mathematician who made important contributions in several areas including dynamical systems theory, catastrophe theory, topology, algebraic geometry, symplectic geometry, differential equations, classical mechanics and singularity theory.

Best known for the Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser Theorem regarding the stability of integrable systems,
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##### Yuri Vladimirovich Matiyasevich (b. 1947 )

Russian mathematician (**Ю́рий Влади́мирович Матиясе́вич**) most famous for proving that Hilbert's Tenth Problem is Unsolvable.
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##### Svetlana Katok (b. 1947 )

Russian-American mathematician whose interests include automorphic forms, analysis on Riemannian manifolds and symmetric spaces, hyperbolic geometry and Fuchsian groups, and application of dynamical systems to analysis and number theory.
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##### Leonid Anatolievich Levin (b. 1948 )

Soviet-American computer scientist best known for his exposition of what is now known as the Cook-Levin Theorem.
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##### Boris Iosifovich Zilber (b. 1949 )

English mathematician of Russian origin known for his research in mathematical logic, mainly from model theory.
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##### Grigori Yakovlevich Perelman (b. 1966 )

Russian mathematician famous for solving Thurston's Geometrization Conjecture, and hence completing the proof of the Poincaré Conjecture.
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