# Definition:Rational Number

## Contents

## Informal Definition

A number in the form $\dfrac p q$, where both $p$ and $q$ are integers ($q$ non-zero), is called a **rational number**.

The set of all **rational numbers** is usually denoted $\Q$.

Thus:

- $\Q = \set {\dfrac p q: p \in \Z, q \in \Z_{\ne 0} }$

## Formal Definition

The field $\left({\Q, +, \times}\right)$ of rational numbers is the quotient field of the integral domain $\left({\Z, +, \times}\right)$ of integers.

This is shown to exist in Existence of Quotient Field.

In view of Quotient Field is Unique, we construct the quotient field of $\Z$, give it a label $\Q$ and call its elements **rational numbers**.

## Canonical Form of Rational Number

Let $r \in \Q$ be a rational number.

The **canonical form of $r$** is the expression $\dfrac p q$, where:

- $r = \dfrac p q: p \in \Z, q \in \Z_{>0}, p \perp q$

where $p \perp q$ denotes that $p$ and $q$ have no common divisor except $1$.

## Fraction

By definition, a rational number is a number which can be expressed in the form:

- $\dfrac a b$

where $a$ and $b$ are integers.

A **fraction** is a rational number such that, when expressed in canonical form $\dfrac a b$ (that is, such that $a$ and $b$ are coprime), the denominator $b$ is not $1$.

## Geometrical Definition

In the words of Euclid:

*With these hypotheses, it is proved that there exist straight lines infinite in multitude which are commensurable and incommensurable respectively, some in length only, and others in square also, with an assigned straight line. Let then the assigned straight line be called***rational**, and those straight lines which are commensurable with it, whether in length and in square or square only,**rational**, but those which are incommensurable with it**irrational**.

(*The Elements*: Book $\text{X}$: Definition $3$)

*And let the square on the assigned straight line be called***rational**and those areas which are commensurable with it**rational**, but those which are incommensurable with it**irrational**, and the straight lines which produce them**irrational**, that is, in case the areas are squares, the sides themselves, but in case they are any other rectilineal figures, the straight lines on which are described squares equal to them.

(*The Elements*: Book $\text{X}$: Definition $4$)

## Linguistic Note

The name rational number has two significances:

- $(1): \quad$ The construct $\dfrac p q$ can be defined as the
**ratio**between $p$ and $q$. - $(2): \quad$ In contrast with the concept irrational number, which can not be so defined.
- The ancient Greeks had such a term for an irrational number:
**alogon**, which had a feeling of**undesirably chaotic and unstructured**, or, perhaps more literally:**illogical**.

- The ancient Greeks had such a term for an irrational number:

- The proof that there exist such numbers was a shock to their collective national psyche.

The symbol $\Q$ arises from the construction of the rational numbers as the $\Q$uotient field of the integers $\Z$.

## Also denoted as

Variants on $\Q$ are often seen, for example $\mathbf Q$ and $\mathcal Q$, or even just $Q$.

## Also see

- Results about
**rational numbers**can be found here.

## Sources

- 1960: Walter Ledermann:
*Complex Numbers*... (previous) ... (next): $\S 1.1$. Number Systems - 1965: Seth Warner:
*Modern Algebra*... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $1$: Algebraic Structures: $\S 1$: The Language of Set Theory - 1968: Ian D. Macdonald:
*The Theory of Groups*... (previous) ... (next): Appendix: Elementary set and number theory - 1969: C.R.J. Clapham:
*Introduction to Abstract Algebra*... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $1$: Integral Domains: $\S 1$. Introduction - 1970: B. Hartley and T.O. Hawkes:
*Rings, Modules and Linear Algebra*... (previous) ... (next): $\S 1.2$: Some examples of rings: Ring Example $4$ - 1970: Lynn Arthur Steen and J. Arthur Seebach, Jr.:
*Counterexamples in Topology*... (previous) ... (next): $\text{II}: \ 30$ - 1971: Allan Clark:
*Elements of Abstract Algebra*... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $1$: The Notation and Terminology of Set Theory: $\S 1$ - 1971: Robert H. Kasriel:
*Undergraduate Topology*... (previous) ... (next): $\S 1.8$: Collections of Sets: Definition $8.4$ - 1972: A.G. Howson:
*A Handbook of Terms used in Algebra and Analysis*... (previous) ... (next): $\S 4$: Number systems $\text{I}$: The rational numbers - 1974: Murray R. Spiegel:
*Theory and Problems of Advanced Calculus*(SI ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $1$: Numbers: Real Numbers: $3$ - 1975: T.S. Blyth:
*Set Theory and Abstract Algebra*... (previous) ... (next): $\S 1$ - 1975: W.A. Sutherland:
*Introduction to Metric and Topological Spaces*... (previous) ... (next): Notation and Terminology - 1977: K.G. Binmore:
*Mathematical Analysis: A Straightforward Approach*... (previous) ... (next): $\S 1.2$: The set of real numbers - 1978: Thomas A. Whitelaw:
*An Introduction to Abstract Algebra*... (previous) ... (next): $\S 2$: Introductory remarks on sets: $\text{(b)}$ - 1981: Murray R. Spiegel:
*Theory and Problems of Complex Variables*(SI ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $1$: Complex Numbers: The Real Number System: $3$ - 1986: David Wells:
*Curious and Interesting Numbers*... (previous) ... (next): Glossary - 1989: Ephraim J. Borowski and Jonathan M. Borwein:
*Dictionary of Mathematics* - 1996: H. Jerome Keisler and Joel Robbin:
*Mathematical Logic and Computability*... (previous) ... (next): Appendix $\text{A}.1$: Sets - 1997: Donald E. Knuth:
*The Art of Computer Programming: Volume 1: Fundamental Algorithms*(3rd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): $\S 1.2.2$: Numbers, Powers, and Logarithms - 1997: David Wells:
*Curious and Interesting Numbers*(2nd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): Glossary - 1999: András Hajnal and Peter Hamburger:
*Set Theory*... (previous) ... (next): $1$. Notation, Conventions: $2$ - 2000: James R. Munkres:
*Topology*(2nd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): $1$: Set Theory and Logic: $\S 4$: The Integers and the Real Numbers - 2008: Paul Halmos and Steven Givant:
*Introduction to Boolean Algebras*... (previous) ... (next): Appendix $\text{A}$: Set Theory: Countable Sets - 2008: David Joyner:
*Adventures in Group Theory*(2nd ed.) ... (previous) ... (next): $\S 2.1$: Functions: Example $2.1.6$ - 2008: Ian Stewart:
*Taming the Infinite*... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $2$: The Logic Of Shape - 2008: Ian Stewart:
*Taming the Infinite*... (previous) ... (next): Chapter $3$: Notations and Numbers