# Mathematician:Mathematicians/Sorted By Nation/United States

For more comprehensive information on the lives and works of mathematicians through the ages, see the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, created by John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson.

*The army of those who have made at least one definite contribution to mathematics as we know it soon becomes a mob as we look back over history; 6,000 or 8,000 names press forward for some word from us to preserve them from oblivion, and once the bolder leaders have been recognised it becomes largely a matter of arbitrary, illogical legislation to judge who of the clamouring multitude shall be permitted to survive and who be condemned to be forgotten.'*- -- Eric Temple Bell:
*Men of Mathematics*, 1937, Victor Gollancz, London

- -- Eric Temple Bell:

## Contents

- 1 USA
- 1.1 1801 – 1850
- 1.2 1851 – 1900
- 1.2.1 Clarence Abiathar Waldo (1852 – 1926)
- 1.2.2 George Arthur Plimpton (1855 – 1936)
- 1.2.3 Florian Cajori (1859 – 1930)
- 1.2.4 David Eugene Smith (1860 – 1944)
- 1.2.5 Frank Nelson Cole (1861 – 1926)
- 1.2.6 Eliakim Hastings Moore (1862 – 1932)
- 1.2.7 William Fogg Osgood (1864 – 1943)
- 1.2.8 James P. Pierpont (1866 – 1938)
- 1.2.9 Derrick Norman Lehmer (1867 – 1938)
- 1.2.10 Charles Albert Noble (1867 – 1962)
- 1.2.11 Maxime Bôcher (1867 – 1918)
- 1.2.12 Horace Scudder Uhler (1872 – 1956)
- 1.2.13 Julian Lowell Coolidge (1873 – 1954)
- 1.2.14 Leonard Eugene Dickson (1874 – 1954)
- 1.2.15 Edward Vermilye Huntington (1874 – 1952)
- 1.2.16 Frank Lauren Hitchcock (1875 – 1957)
- 1.2.17 Gilbert Ames Bliss (1876 – 1951)
- 1.2.18 Earle Raymond Hedrick (1876 – 1943)
- 1.2.19 Edward Kasner (1878 – 1955)
- 1.2.20 Robert Daniel Carmichael (1879 – 1967)
- 1.2.21 John Wesley Young (1879 – 1932)
- 1.2.22 Oswald Veblen (1880 – 1960)
- 1.2.23 Henry Maurice Sheffer (1882 – 1964)
- 1.2.24 Percy Williams Bridgman (1882 – 1961)
- 1.2.25 Harry Schultz Vandiver (1882 – 1973)
- 1.2.26 Clarence Irving Lewis (1883 – 1964)
- 1.2.27 James Henry Weaver (1883 – 1942)
- 1.2.28 George David Birkhoff (1884 – 1944)
- 1.2.29 Frank Hyneman Knight (1885 – 1972)
- 1.2.30 Louis Joel Mordell (1888 – 1972)
- 1.2.31 James Waddell Alexander II (1888 – 1971)
- 1.2.32 William Frederick Friedman (1891 – 1969)
- 1.2.33 Herman Lyle Smith (1892 – 1950)
- 1.2.34 Norbert Wiener (1894 – 1964)
- 1.2.35 Raymond Louis Wilder (1896 – 1982)
- 1.2.36 Lincoln La Paz (1897 – 1985)
- 1.2.37 Charles Wilderman Trigg (1898 – 1989)
- 1.2.38 David Vernon Widder (1898 – 1990)
- 1.2.39 Ruel Vance Churchill (1899 – 1987)
- 1.2.40 John Clarke Slater (1900 – 1976)

- 1.3 1901 – 1930
- 1.3.1 Frank J. Ayres, Jr. (1901 – 1994)
- 1.3.2 Joseph Warner Howe (1902 – 1983)
- 1.3.3 Carolyn Eisele (1902 – 2000)
- 1.3.4 Hubert Stanley Wall (1902 – 1971)
- 1.3.5 Marshall Harvey Stone (1903 – 1989)
- 1.3.6 John Francis Riordan (1903 – 1988)
- 1.3.7 Alonzo Church (1903 – 1995)
- 1.3.8 John von Neumann (1903 – 1957)
- 1.3.9 Edward James McShane (1904 – 1989)
- 1.3.10 Derrick Henry Lehmer (1905 – 1991)
- 1.3.11 Hunter Rouse (1906 – 1996)
- 1.3.12 Carl Benjamin Boyer (1906 – 1976)
- 1.3.13 James Roy Newman (1907 – 1966)
- 1.3.14 Hassler Whitney (1907 – 1989)
- 1.3.15 Holbrook Mann MacNeille (1907 – 1973)
- 1.3.16 Edwin Mattison McMillan (1907 – 1991)
- 1.3.17 John Barkley Rosser Sr. (1907 – 1989)
- 1.3.18 John Charles Chenoweth McKinsey (1908 – 1953)
- 1.3.19 Morris Kline (1908 – 1992)
- 1.3.20 Willard Van Orman Quine (1908 – 2000)
- 1.3.21 Stephen Cole Kleene (1909 – 1994)
- 1.3.22 Arthur Sard (1909 – 1980)
- 1.3.23 Saunders Mac Lane (1909 – 2005)
- 1.3.24 Nathan Jacobson (1910 – 1999)
- 1.3.25 Anthony Perry Morse (1911 – 1984)
- 1.3.26 George Joseph Stigler (1911 – 1991)
- 1.3.27 Garrett Birkhoff (1911 – 1996)
- 1.3.28 John William Wrench, Jr. (1911 – 2009)
- 1.3.29 Raphael Mitchel Robinson (1911 – 1995)
- 1.3.30 Arthur Norton Milgram (1912 – 1961)
- 1.3.31 Ralph Philip Boas, Jr. (1912 – 1992)
- 1.3.32 Charles Stanley Ogilvy (1913 – 2000)
- 1.3.33 Abraham Charnes (1913 – 1992)
- 1.3.34 Rufus Philip Isaacs (1914 – 1981)
- 1.3.35 William Wager Cooper (1914 – 2012)
- 1.3.36 Robert Osher Schlaifer (1914 – 1994)
- 1.3.37 Martin Gardner (1914 – 2010)
- 1.3.38 Milton Abramowitz (1915 – 1958)
- 1.3.39 Robert Henry Sorgenfrey (1915 – 1995)
- 1.3.40 Herbert Ellis Robbins (1915 – 2001)
- 1.3.41 Richard Wesley Hamming (1915 – 1998)
- 1.3.42 John Wilder Tukey (1915 – 2000)
- 1.3.43 Wilfred Kaplan (1915 – 2007)
- 1.3.44 Bryant Tuckerman (1915 – 2002)
- 1.3.45 Selmer Martin Johnson (1916 – 1996)
- 1.3.46 Nathan Jacob Fine (1916 – 1994)
- 1.3.47 Robert Dorfman (1916 – 2002)
- 1.3.48 John Leroy Kelley (1916 – 1999)
- 1.3.49 Daniel Shanks (1917 – 1996)
- 1.3.50 Irving Marmer Copi (1917 – 2002)
- 1.3.51 Leonard Jimmie Savage (1917 – 1971)
- 1.3.52 Elizabeth Leonard Scott (1917 – 1988)
- 1.3.53 Jacques Dutka (1919 – 2002)
- 1.3.54 Harry Pollard (1919 – 1985)
- 1.3.55 Irene Ann Stegun (1919 – 2008)
- 1.3.56 David Harold Blackwell (1919 – 2010)
- 1.3.57 Raymond Merrill Smullyan (1919 – 2017)
- 1.3.58 Donald Kalish (1919 – 2000)
- 1.3.59 Julia Hall Bowman Robinson (1919 – 1985)
- 1.3.60 William Kay Smith (1920 – 2007)
- 1.3.61 Richard Ernest Bellman (1920 – 1984)
- 1.3.62 Carlton Edward Lemke (1920 – 2004)
- 1.3.63 Marion Kirkland Fort, Jr (1921 – 1964)
- 1.3.64 Robert Clay Prim (b. 1921 )
- 1.3.65 Thomas Crombie Schelling (1921 – 2016)
- 1.3.66 Leon Albert Henkin (1921 – 2006)
- 1.3.67 Harry Jeannot Lipkin (b. 1921 )
- 1.3.68 Verner Emil Hoggatt Jr. (1921 – 1980)
- 1.3.69 Angelo Margaris (1921 – 2006)
- 1.3.70 Patrick Colonel Suppes (1922 – 2014)
- 1.3.71 Friend Hans Kierstead, Jr. (1922 – 2008)
- 1.3.72 Henry Andrew Kierstead (1922 – 1990)
- 1.3.73 George Brown Arfken (b. 1922 )
- 1.3.74 Harvey Cohn (1923 – 2014)
- 1.3.75 Philip J. Davis (1923 – 2018)
- 1.3.76 William Judson LeVeque (1923 – 2007)
- 1.3.77 Tom Mike Apostol (1923 – 2016)
- 1.3.78 Murray Ralph Spiegel (1923 – 1991)
- 1.3.79 Howard Raiffa (b. 1924 )
- 1.3.80 John Warner Backus (1924 – 2007)
- 1.3.81 Mary Ellen Rudin (1924 – 2013)
- 1.3.82 George Finlay Simmons (b. 1925 )
- 1.3.83 John Tate (b. 1925 )
- 1.3.84 Robert Duncan Luce (b. 1925 )
- 1.3.85 George Leitmann (b. 1925 )
- 1.3.86 Harold William Kuhn (1925 – 2014)
- 1.3.87 Ernest Tilden Parker (1926 – 1991)
- 1.3.88 Donald John Lewis (1926 – 2015)
- 1.3.89 Martin Shubik (b. 1926 )
- 1.3.90 Robert Lawson Vaught (1926 – 2002)
- 1.3.91 Hilary Whitehall Putnam (1926 – 2016)
- 1.3.92 Richard C. Jeffrey (1926 – 2002)
- 1.3.93 Nesmith Cornett Ankeny (1927 – 1993)
- 1.3.94 Robert Gardner Bartle (1927 – 2003)
- 1.3.95 Reuben Hersh (b. 1927 )
- 1.3.96 Richard S. Pierce (1927 – 1992)
- 1.3.97 John Lewis Selfridge (1927 – 2010)
- 1.3.98 Joseph Steven Madachy (1927 – 2014)
- 1.3.99 Benjamin Franklin Logan (1927 – 2015)
- 1.3.100 Wendell Helms Fleming (b. 1928 )
- 1.3.101 Harold Seymour Shapiro (b. 1928 )
- 1.3.102 Abner Shimony (1928 – 2015)
- 1.3.103 Joseph Bernard Kruskal (b. 1928 )
- 1.3.104 Ray Alden Kunze (1928 – 2014)
- 1.3.105 Martin David Davis (b. 1928 )
- 1.3.106 Thomas Andrew Lehrer (b. 1928 )
- 1.3.107 John Forbes Nash (1928 – 2015)
- 1.3.108 Louis Auslander (1928 – 1997)
- 1.3.109 Harvey Alan Dubner (b. 1928 )
- 1.3.110 James Harold McKay (b. 1928 )
- 1.3.111 Henry W. Gould (b. 1928 )
- 1.3.112 Halsey Lawrence Royden (1928 – 1993)
- 1.3.113 Donald G. Higman (1928 – 2006)
- 1.3.114 Barry Mitchell (b. 1930 )
- 1.3.115 Donald J. Newman (1930 – 2007)
- 1.3.116 James Raymond Munkres (b. 1930 )
- 1.3.117 Richard Merett Montague (1930 – 1971)
- 1.3.118 John Rolfe Isbell (1930 – 2005)
- 1.3.119 Norman Woodason Johnson (b. 1930 )
- 1.3.120 John David Brillhart (b. 1930 )

- 1.4 1931 and onwards
- 1.4.1 Kenneth Myron Hoffman (c. 1931 – 2008)
- 1.4.2 Seymour Saul Lipschutz (b. 1931 )
- 1.4.3 Daniel Leonid Slotnick (1931 – 1985)
- 1.4.4 John Winsor Pratt (b. 1931 )
- 1.4.5 Herbert Saul Wilf (b. 1931 )
- 1.4.6 John Willard Milnor (b. 1931 )
- 1.4.7 Rudolph Michael Najar (b. 1931 )
- 1.4.8 Basil Gordon (1931 – 2012)
- 1.4.9 Joseph F. Stephany (1932 – 2011)
- 1.4.10 Harry Lewis Nelson (b. 1932 )
- 1.4.11 David Abram Antin (1932 – 2016)
- 1.4.12 Solomon Wolf Golomb (1932 – 2016)
- 1.4.13 Kenneth Ira Appel (1932 – 2013)
- 1.4.14 Dana Stewart Scott (b. 1932 )
- 1.4.15 Theodore William Gamelin (b. 1933 )
- 1.4.16 Nils John Nilsson (b. 1933 )
- 1.4.17 Stephen Hoel Schanuel (1933 – 2014)
- 1.4.18 Paul Joseph Cohen (1934 – 2007)
- 1.4.19 Robert B. Ash (1935 – 2015)
- 1.4.20 Ronald Lewis Graham (b. 1935 )
- 1.4.21 Herbert Bruce Enderton (1936 – 2010)
- 1.4.22 Peter C. Fishburn (b. 1936 )
- 1.4.23 Howard E. Sturgis (1936 – 1990)
- 1.4.24 Peter John Freyd (b. 1936 )
- 1.4.25 Thomas William Hungerford (1936 – 2014)
- 1.4.26 Robert W Floyd (1936 – 2001)
- 1.4.27 Gary Theodore Chartrand (b. 1936 )
- 1.4.28 Howard Jerome Keisler (b. 1936 )
- 1.4.29 Peter Bruce Andrews (b. 1937 )
- 1.4.30 Underwood Dudley (b. 1937 )
- 1.4.31 James Burton Ax (1937 – 2006)
- 1.4.32 Robert Butler Wilson (b. 1937 )
- 1.4.33 William Robert Alford (1937 – 2003)
- 1.4.34 Alexander Hurwitz (b. 1937 )
- 1.4.35 Barry Charles Mazur (b. 1937 )
- 1.4.36 Robert Berger (b. 1938 )
- 1.4.37 Ian Mueller (1938 – 2010)
- 1.4.38 J. Arthur Seebach (1938 – 1996)
- 1.4.39 Charles Coffin Sims (b. 1938 )
- 1.4.40 Donald Ervin Knuth (b. 1938 )
- 1.4.41 Richard Mansfield Dudley (b. 1938 )
- 1.4.42 George Eyre Andrews (b. 1938 )
- 1.4.43 Lorraine Lois Foster (b. 1938 )
- 1.4.44 John Bligh Conway (b. 1939 )
- 1.4.45 David Breyer Singmaster (b. 1939 )
- 1.4.46 Stephen Arthur Cook (b. 1939 )
- 1.4.47 Charles Chapman Pugh (b. 1940 )
- 1.4.48 Alexander G. Ramm (b. 1940 )
- 1.4.49 Michael David Spivak (b. 1940 )
- 1.4.50 Daniel Gray Quillen (1940 – 2011)
- 1.4.51 George Stephen Boolos (1940 – 1996)
- 1.4.52 Elwyn Ralph Berlekamp (b. 1940 )
- 1.4.53 David Anthony Klarner (1940 – 1999)
- 1.4.54 Lynn Arthur Steen (1941 – 2015)
- 1.4.55 Joel William Robbin (b. 1941 )
- 1.4.56 Roland Edwin Larson (b. 1941 )
- 1.4.57 Robert James McEliece (b. 1942 )
- 1.4.58 Joseph Anthony Gallian (b. 1942 )
- 1.4.59 Melvin Fitting (b. 1942 )
- 1.4.60 Alfred S. Posamentier (b. 1942 )
- 1.4.61 Robert Everist Greene (b. 1943 )
- 1.4.62 Ralph William Gosper, Jr. (b. 1943 )
- 1.4.63 George Mark Bergman (b. 1943 )
- 1.4.64 Herbert Kenneth Kunen (b. 1943 )
- 1.4.65 Nicholas Michael Katz (b. 1943 )
- 1.4.66 Carl Bernard Pomerance (b. 1944 )
- 1.4.67 Vaughan Ronald Pratt (b. 1944 )
- 1.4.68 Bailey Whitfield Diffie (b. 1944 )
- 1.4.69 Hugh Lowell Montgomery (b. 1944 )
- 1.4.70 Melvyn Bernard Nathanson (b. 1944 )
- 1.4.71 Mitchell Jay Feigenbaum (b. 1944 )
- 1.4.72 Robert Louis Griess, Jr. (b. 1945 )
- 1.4.73 Edward M. Reingold (b. 1945 )
- 1.4.74 Persi Warren Diaconis (b. 1945 )
- 1.4.75 Douglas Richard Hofstadter (b. 1945 )
- 1.4.76 Samuel Standfield Wagstaff Jr. (b. 1945 )
- 1.4.77 Martin Golubitsky (b. 1945 )
- 1.4.78 Martin Edward Hellman (b. 1945 )
- 1.4.79 Leonard Max Adleman (b. 1945 )
- 1.4.80 Derek A. Zave (1946 – 1987)
- 1.4.81 Rudolf von Bitter Rucker (b. 1946 )
- 1.4.82 William Paul Thurston (1946 – 2012)
- 1.4.83 Ronald Linn Rivest (b. 1947 )
- 1.4.84 Gerald Budge Folland (b. 1947 )
- 1.4.85 Peter Lawrence Montgomery (b. 1947 )
- 1.4.86 William Wade Dunham (b. 1947 )
- 1.4.87 Richard E. Crandall (1947 – 2012)
- 1.4.88 Michael R. Genesereth (b. 1948 )
- 1.4.89 Richard Schroeppel (b. 1948 )
- 1.4.90 Paul Robert Milgrom (b. 1948 )
- 1.4.91 John Patton Burgess (b. 1948 )
- 1.4.92 David Harold Bailey (b. 1948 )
- 1.4.93 Lee Vernon Stiff (b. 1949 )
- 1.4.94 Lawrence Craig Evans (b. 1949 )
- 1.4.95 David Marc Kreps (b. 1950 )
- 1.4.96 Eric Stark Maskin (b. 1950 )
- 1.4.97 Lawrence Clinton Washington (b. 1951 )
- 1.4.98 Steven George Krantz (b. 1951 )
- 1.4.99 Roger Bruce Myerson (b. 1951 )
- 1.4.100 Robert Scott Rumely (b. 1952 )
- 1.4.101 Charles Eric Leiserson (b. 1953 )
- 1.4.102 Glenn H. Stevens (b. 1953 )
- 1.4.103 Oren Patashnik (b. 1954 )
- 1.4.104 James Gleick (b. 1954 )
- 1.4.105 Michael Keith (b. 1955 )
- 1.4.106 David Knudsen Levine (b. 1955 )
- 1.4.107 Joseph Hillel Silverman (b. 1955 )
- 1.4.108 David Allen Bayer (b. 1955 )
- 1.4.109 Thomas H. Cormen (b. 1956 )
- 1.4.110 Paul Hoffman (b. 1956 )
- 1.4.111 Colin Conrad Adams (b. 1956 )
- 1.4.112 Drew Fudenberg (b. 1957 )
- 1.4.113 Clifford Alan Pickover (b. 1957 )
- 1.4.114 George F. Woltman (b. 1957 )
- 1.4.115 Mark Steven Manasse (b. 1958 )
- 1.4.116 Ariel T. Glenn (b. 1960 )
- 1.4.117 Landon Curt Noll (b. 1960 )
- 1.4.118 Kenneth Keeler (b. 1961 )
- 1.4.119 John Carlos Baez (b. 1961 )
- 1.4.120 Clifford Seth Stein (b. 1965 )
- 1.4.121 Noam David Elkies (b. 1966 )
- 1.4.122 Jordan Stuart Ellenberg (b. 1971 )
- 1.4.123 Danica Mae McKellar (b. 1975 )
- 1.4.124 Nathaniel Read Silver (b. 1978 )
- 1.4.125 Victoria Hart (b. 1988 )

- 2 References

## USA

### 1801 – 1850

##### Benjamin Peirce (1809 – 1880)

American mathematician and logician who has been called "The founding father of modern abstract algebra".

Like George Boole, attempted to put logic on a sound mathematical footing.

He also contributed to many other areas of mathematics.

Proved that there is no odd perfect number with fewer than four prime factors.

Introduced the terms idempotence and nilpotence in $1870$, in his work *Linear Associative Algebra*.

Father of Charles Sanders Peirce.
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##### Elias Loomis (1811 – 1889)

American mathematician and physicist best known for his textbooks.

Also known for his thorough investigation into the geomagnetic storm of 1859.
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##### Edward J. Goodwin (1825 – 1902)

Indiana physician and amateur mathematician who believed he had squared the circle, trisected the angle and doubled the cube.

He proposed a bill to allow for the charging of royalties for the use of the value of $\pi$ (pi) that he had calculated.

It was rejected before the second reading through the efforts of Clarence Abiathar Waldo.
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##### Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839 – 1903)

American scientist who made important theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and mathematics.
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##### Charles Sanders Peirce (1839 – 1914)

American chemist who contributed to the fields of logic and mathematical philosophy, in particular the theory of the use of signs.

Laid some of the groundwork for the mathematical discipline of category theory.

Perceived in $1886$ that the functions of logic can be carried out by electronic circuitry.

Son of Benjamin Peirce.
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##### Samuel Loyd (1841 – 1911)

American chess player, chess composer, puzzle author, and recreational mathematician.
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##### Wooster Woodruff Beman (1850 – 1922)

American mathematician best known for his text books and translations.
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### 1851 – 1900

##### Clarence Abiathar Waldo (1852 – 1926)

American mathematician, author and educator today most famous for the role he played in the Indiana Pi Bill affair.
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##### George Arthur Plimpton (1855 – 1936)

American publisher and philanthropist, whose contribution to mathematics was his collection of rare ancient mathematical works which he donated to the Nicholas Murray Butler Library of Columbia University.
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##### Florian Cajori (1859 – 1930)

Swiss-born American mathematician who specialized in (and in fact pioneered) the field of mathematics history.
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##### David Eugene Smith (1860 – 1944)

American mathematician and educator best known for his translations of classics.
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##### Frank Nelson Cole (1861 – 1926)

American mathematician famous for finding the factors of the Mersenne number $M_{67}$. (It had already been demonstrated by Édouard Lucas in $1876$ that it is not prime, but till this time the factors had not been found.) Cole's demonstration of this in $1903$ took the form of a now famous lecture *On The Factorization of Large Numbers* in which he performed the necessary arithmetic on a blackboard, delivering the only totally wordless lecture in recorded history.

The American Mathematical Society's *Cole Prize* was named in his honor.
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##### Eliakim Hastings Moore (1862 – 1932)

American mathematician working in abstract algebra and the foundations of geometry, among others.
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##### William Fogg Osgood (1864 – 1943)

American mathematician working in complex analysis, in particular conformal mapping and uniformization of analytic functions, and calculus of variations.

Wrote on the theory of the gyroscope.
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##### James P. Pierpont (1866 – 1938)

American mathematician working first in Galois theory, and then in real and complex analysis.
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##### Derrick Norman Lehmer (1867 – 1938)

American mathematician active mainly in the field of number theory.

The father of Derrick Henry ("Dick") Lehmer.
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##### Charles Albert Noble (1867 – 1962)

American mathematician who worked mainly on differential equations.
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##### Maxime Bôcher (1867 – 1918)

American mathematician who worked on differential equations, series, and algebra.
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##### Horace Scudder Uhler (1872 – 1956)

American physicist who worked on geometrical optics, spectroscopy and X-rays.

As a mathematician, demonstrated several Mersenne numbers to be composite without finding one single Mersenne prime.

Also calculated the values of many irrational numbers such as logarithms, reciprocals and roots to a colosssal number of decimal places.

Published the value of $\log_{10} \left({9^{9^9} }\right)$ to $250$ decimal places in $1947$.
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##### Julian Lowell Coolidge (1873 – 1954)

American mathematician and a professor and chairman of the Harvard University Mathematics Department.
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##### Leonard Eugene Dickson (1874 – 1954)

One of the first American mathematicians to work in abstract algebra.

Also remembered for his history of number theory.
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##### Edward Vermilye Huntington (1874 – 1952)

American mathematician who worked on the foundations of mathematics.
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##### Frank Lauren Hitchcock (1875 – 1957)

American mathematician and physicist known for his formulation of the transportation problem in $1941$.
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##### Gilbert Ames Bliss (1876 – 1951)

American mathematician, known for his work on the calculus of variations.
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##### Earle Raymond Hedrick (1876 – 1943)

American mathematician who adopted the position of vice-president of the University of California.
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##### Edward Kasner (1878 – 1955)

American mathematician best known now for coining the terms googol and googolplex.
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##### Robert Daniel Carmichael (1879 – 1967)

American mathematician who contributed mainly to the fields of differential equations and number theory.
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##### John Wesley Young (1879 – 1932)

American mathematician who introduced the axioms of projective geometry with Oswald Veblen.
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##### Oswald Veblen (1880 – 1960)

American mathematician, geometer and topologist, whose work found application in atomic physics and the theory of relativity.

Proved the Jordan Curve Theorem in 1905.
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##### Henry Maurice Sheffer (1882 – 1964)

American logician famous for proving in $1913$ that the logical NAND operator is functionally complete. (This had previously been noted by Charles Sanders Peirce in $1880$ but not published till $1933$.)
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##### Percy Williams Bridgman (1882 – 1961)

American physicist awarded for his work on the physics of high pressures.

Wrote extensively on the scientific method and other aspects of the philosophy of science.
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##### Harry Schultz Vandiver (1882 – 1973)

American mathematician known for his work in number theory.
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##### Clarence Irving Lewis (1883 – 1964)

American philosopher logician recognized as being a leading authority on symbolic logic.

An early proponent of the work of Charles Sanders Peirce, and also referenced the logical works of Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz.

Did considerable work to analyze the semantic meaning of the conditional statement.

Analyzed modal logic.
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##### James Henry Weaver (1883 – 1942)

American mathematician who co-authored books with Robert Daniel Carmichael.
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##### George David Birkhoff (1884 – 1944)

American mathematician best known for what is now known as the Ergodic Theorem.

The father of Garrett Birkhoff.
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##### Frank Hyneman Knight (1885 – 1972)

American economist whose work inspired some of the early developments in game theory.

Developed the argument which was eventually named Wardrop's Principle (for John Glen Wardrop).
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##### Louis Joel Mordell (1888 – 1972)

American-born British mathematician known for his pioneering research in number theory.
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##### James Waddell Alexander II (1888 – 1971)

American mathematician who did pioneering work in topology and knot theory.
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##### William Frederick Friedman (1891 – 1969)

American cryptographer instrumental in breaking Japan's PURPLE cipher before America's entrance into World War II.
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##### Herman Lyle Smith (1892 – 1950)

American mathematician who worked in the field of set theory.
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##### Norbert Wiener (1894 – 1964)

American mathematician who worked mainly in computer science, stochastic processes and cybernetics.
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##### Raymond Louis Wilder (1896 – 1982)

American mathematician best known for his writing on the subject of the philosophy of mathematics.
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##### Lincoln La Paz (1897 – 1985)

American mathematician and pioneer in the field of meteorics.

During World War II, served as research mathematician at the New Mexico Proving Grounds.
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##### Charles Wilderman Trigg (1898 – 1989)

American engineer, mathematician and educator.

Best known nowadays for his work in the field of recreational mathematics.
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##### David Vernon Widder (1898 – 1990)

American mathematician mainly working in analyis.

He was highly regarded for his teaching abilities.

The author of the textbook *Advanced Calculus*.
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##### Ruel Vance Churchill (1899 – 1987)

American mathematician best known for his textbooks.
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##### John Clarke Slater (1900 – 1976)

American physicist who made major contributions to the theory of the electronic structure of atoms, molecules and solids.
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### 1901 – 1930

##### Frank J. Ayres, Jr. (1901 – 1994)

American mathematician best known for his text books.
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##### Joseph Warner Howe (1902 – 1983)

American physicist working mainly in the field of fluid mechanics and hydraulics.
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##### Carolyn Eisele (1902 – 2000)

American mathematician and historian of mathematics known as an expert on the works of Charles Sanders Peirce.
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##### Hubert Stanley Wall (1902 – 1971)

American mathematician who worked primarily in the field of continued fractions.

One of the leading proponents of the Moore method of teaching.
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##### Marshall Harvey Stone (1903 – 1989)

American mathematician who contributed to real analysis, functional analysis, and the study of boolean algebras.
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##### John Francis Riordan (1903 – 1988)

American mathematician and the author of major early works in combinatorics.

Also contributed significantly to the world of literature and poetry.
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##### Alonzo Church (1903 – 1995)

American mathematician who pioneered in the field of computability theory and the foundations of computer science.

Best known for his lambda calculus, Church's Theorem and Church's Thesis.
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##### John von Neumann (1903 – 1957)

Hungarian-American mathematician who made major contributions to a vast range of fields, including set theory, functional analysis, quantum mechanics, ergodic theory, continuous geometry, economics, computer science, numerical analysis and statistics, to name but a few.

Founded the field of game theory in collaboration with Oskar Morgenstern.

Generally regarded as one of the foremost mathematicians in modern history.
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##### Edward James McShane (1904 – 1989)

American mathematician noted for his advancements of the calculus of variations, integration theory, stochastic calculus, and exterior ballistics.
**show full page**

##### Derrick Henry Lehmer (1905 – 1991)

**Derrick Henry ("Dick") Lehmer** was an American mathematician active mainly in the field of number theory.

Most famous for designing the Lucas-Lehmer Test for determining the primality of Mersenne numbers.

The son of Derrick Norman Lehmer, and married to Emma Lehmer, née Trotskaia.
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##### Hunter Rouse (1906 – 1996)

American physicist working mainly in the field of fluid mechanics and hydraulics.
**show full page**

##### Carl Benjamin Boyer (1906 – 1976)

American historian of mathematics and science.
**show full page**

##### James Roy Newman (1907 – 1966)

American mathematician and historian of mathematics best known for his writings and popularisations.
**show full page**

##### Hassler Whitney (1907 – 1989)

American mathematician who worked mainly in topology.
**show full page**

##### Holbrook Mann MacNeille (1907 – 1973)

American mathematician who worked for the United States Atomic Energy Commission before becoming the first Executive Director of the American Mathematical Society.
**show full page**

##### Edwin Mattison McMillan (1907 – 1991)

American physicist and working in nuclear science.

Also worked on the mathematics of computation.
**show full page**

##### John Barkley Rosser Sr. (1907 – 1989)

American logician best known for his work in mathematical logic.
**show full page**

##### John Charles Chenoweth McKinsey (1908 – 1953)

American mathematician best known for his work on mathematical logic and game theory. He also made significant contributions to modal logic.
**show full page**

##### Morris Kline (1908 – 1992)

American physicist, mathematics teacher, historian, and agitator for the teaching of the New Mathematics in schools.
**show full page**

##### Willard Van Orman Quine (1908 – 2000)

Legendary American philosopher and logician, known by his friends as **Van**.

Proposed three systems of axiomatic set theory.

The word **quine** was coined by Douglas R. Hofstadter in his classic 1979 work *Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid*, in which what is now known as Quine's paradox was discussed at length.

The word **quine** is now used for a computer program whose output is itself.
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##### Stephen Cole Kleene (1909 – 1994)

American mathematician best known as one of the great pioneers in the field of recursion theory.
**show full page**

##### Arthur Sard (1909 – 1980)

American mathematician, famous for his work in differential topology and in spline interpolation.
**show full page**

##### Saunders Mac Lane (1909 – 2005)

American mathematician who cofounded category theory with Samuel Eilenberg.

Introduced the diagrammatic approach to mathematics, in particular pioneering the use of commutative diagrams.
**show full page**

##### Nathan Jacobson (1910 – 1999)

Polish-American mathematician mainly working in abstract algebra.

Student of Joseph Henry Maclagan Wedderburn.

Known as **Jake** to his friends and colleagues.
**show full page**

##### Anthony Perry Morse (1911 – 1984)

American mathematician who worked both in analysis, especially measure theory, and in the foundations of mathematics.
**show full page**

##### George Joseph Stigler (1911 – 1991)

American economist.
**show full page**

##### Garrett Birkhoff (1911 – 1996)

American mathematician mainly working in mathematical physics and abstract algebra.

Also wrote plenty of text books: his *Lattice Theory* (1940) is much cited.

The son of George David Birkhoff.
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##### John William Wrench, Jr. (1911 – 2009)

American mathematician working mainly in numerical analysis.

Pioneer of the use of computers for mathematical calculations

Best known now for his work with Daniel Shanks to calculate $\pi$ to $100 \, 000$ decimal places.
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##### Raphael Mitchel Robinson (1911 – 1995)

American mathematician who worked on mathematical logic, set theory, geometry, number theory and combinatorics.

One of the early computer pioneers, he implemented a program for the Lucas-Lehmer Test and in 1952 determined or confirmed the primality of all the Mersenne numbers up to $M_{2304}$. In the process, he discovered the Mersenne primes $M_{521}, M_{607}, M_{1279}, M_{2203}$ and $M_{2281}$.
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##### Arthur Norton Milgram (1912 – 1961)

American mathematician who worked on functional analysis, combinatorics, differential geometry, topology, partial differential equations, and Galois theory.
**show full page**

##### Ralph Philip Boas, Jr. (1912 – 1992)

American mathematician, teacher, and journal editor, working mainly in the fields of real and complex analysis.

Best known for his humorous applications of mathematical theorems to the practical purpose of hunting lions.
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##### Charles Stanley Ogilvy (1913 – 2000)

American mathematician also well-known for being a sailor.
**show full page**

##### Abraham Charnes (1913 – 1992)

American mathematician who worked in the area of operations research.
**show full page**

##### Rufus Philip Isaacs (1914 – 1981)

American game theorist known for his work on differential games.
**show full page**

##### William Wager Cooper (1914 – 2012)

American operations researcher known for developing the field of linear programming.
**show full page**

##### Robert Osher Schlaifer (1914 – 1994)

American statistician who was one of the pioneers of Bayesian decision theory.
**show full page**

##### Martin Gardner (1914 – 2010)

American mathematician and magician best known for the books he wrote (of which there were many) popularizing mathematics and science.

Author of the *Mathematical Games* column in *Scientific American* between 1956 and 1981. This position was taken over by Douglas R. Hofstadter.

Also contributed a series of "puzzle page" articles for *Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine* in the late 1970's to early 1980's.

Also wrote a column called *Notes of a Fringe Watcher* (originally *Notes of a Psi-Watcher*) from 1983 to 2002 for the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry's periodical *Skeptical Inquirer*.
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##### Milton Abramowitz (1915 – 1958)

American mathematician who made his mark co-editing the *Handbook of Mathematical Functions* with Irene Ann Stegun.
**show full page**

##### Robert Henry Sorgenfrey (1915 – 1995)

American mathematician who made significant contributions to the field of topology.
**show full page**

##### Herbert Ellis Robbins (1915 – 2001)

American mathematician and statistician who did research in topology, measure theory, statistics, and a variety of other fields.
**show full page**

##### Richard Wesley Hamming (1915 – 1998)

American mathematician best known for his work on error-detecting codes.

Thus he started a new field of study within information theory.
**show full page**

##### John Wilder Tukey (1915 – 2000)

American mathematician working mainly in the field of statistics.

Best known for development of the FFT algorithm and box plot.
**show full page**

##### Wilfred Kaplan (1915 – 2007)

American professor of mathematics whose research focused on dynamical systems, the topology of curve families, complex function theory, and differential equations.
**show full page**

##### Bryant Tuckerman (1915 – 2002)

American mathematician who discovered, on March 4th, $1971$, the 24th Mersenne prime: $2^{19 \, 937} - 1$.
**show full page**

##### Selmer Martin Johnson (1916 – 1996)

American mathematician working on number theory and optimisation problems.
**show full page**

##### Nathan Jacob Fine (1916 – 1994)

American mathematician who worked on basic hypergeometric series.

Best known for his lecture notes on the subject which were used as a standard, until they were finally published as a book.

Solved the Jeep Problem in $1946$.
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##### Robert Dorfman (1916 – 2002)

American mathematician who made contributions to the fields of economics, group testing and in the process of coding theory.
**show full page**

##### John Leroy Kelley (1916 – 1999)

American mathematician best known for his work on topology and functional analysis.

Author of the widely-used and -cited textbook *General Topology*, and others.
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##### Daniel Shanks (1917 – 1996)

American mathematician who worked primarily in numerical analysis and number theory.

Best known as the first to compute $\pi$ to $100 \, 000$ decimal places.
**show full page**

##### Irving Marmer Copi (1917 – 2002)

American philosopher and mathematician best known for his university textbooks.
**show full page**

##### Leonard Jimmie Savage (1917 – 1971)

American mathematician who worked on metric and differential geometry, calculus of variations and statistics.
**show full page**

##### Elizabeth Leonard Scott (1917 – 1988)

American mathematician active in the field of group theory, but more well-known for her work in astronomy.

Also involved (with Jerzy Neyman) in the science of rainmaking by cloud seeding.
**show full page**

##### Jacques Dutka (1919 – 2002)

American mathematician who was the first to calculate the square root of $2$ to more than one million digits.

Also wrote extensively on the history of mathematics.
**show full page**

##### Harry Pollard (1919 – 1985)

American mathematician noted for his work in celestial mechanics and the $n$-body problem.
**show full page**

##### Irene Ann Stegun (1919 – 2008)

American mathematician who took over the work of co-editing the *Handbook of Mathematical Functions* from Milton Abramowitz, who died in 1958 before the work was complete.
**show full page**

##### David Harold Blackwell (1919 – 2010)

American mathematician who focused mainly on statistics and game theory.
**show full page**

##### Raymond Merrill Smullyan (1919 – 2017)

**Raymond Merrill Smullyan** (known as "Ray") was an American mathematician and logician, noted for the accessibility of his books on logic.

He also was a concert pianist and magician.
**show full page**

##### Donald Kalish (1919 – 2000)

American logician, also known as an activist against the Vietnam war.
**show full page**

##### Julia Hall Bowman Robinson (1919 – 1985)

American mathematician best known for her work on decision problems and Hilbert's Tenth Problem.

Born **Julia Hall Bowman**.
**show full page**

##### William Kay Smith (1920 – 2007)

American mathematician working in education and real analysis.
**show full page**

##### Richard Ernest Bellman (1920 – 1984)

American applied mathematician, who introduced dynamic programming in 1953, and important contributions in other fields of mathematics.
**show full page**

##### Carlton Edward Lemke (1920 – 2004)

American mathematician, working in Algebra, Mathematical Programming, Operations Research, and Statistics.

Also contributed to game theory.

Developed the dual simplex method in $1954$, independently from E.M.L. Beale.

With J.T. Howson, Constructed an algorithm in $1964$ for finding Nash equilibria the case of finite two-person games, for which he received the John von Neumann Theory Prize in $1978$.
**show full page**

##### Marion Kirkland Fort, Jr (1921 – 1964)

**M. K. Fort, Jr.**, known as **Kirk**, was an American mathematician specialising in topology.
**show full page**

##### Robert Clay Prim (b. 1921 )

American mathematician working mainly in the field of computer science.
**show full page**

##### Thomas Crombie Schelling (1921 – 2016)

American economist and professor of foreign policy, national security, nuclear strategy, and arms control.

An authority on game theory.
**show full page**

##### Leon Albert Henkin (1921 – 2006)

American logician best known for Henkin's Completeness Proof.
**show full page**

##### Harry Jeannot Lipkin (b. 1921 )

American-born Israeli theoretical physicist specializing in nuclear physics and elementary particle physics.
**show full page**

##### Verner Emil Hoggatt Jr. (1921 – 1980)

American mathematician, known mostly for his work in Fibonacci numbers and number theory.

Founder of the Fibonacci Association.
**show full page**

##### Angelo Margaris (1921 – 2006)

American mathematician best known for his textbook *First Order Mathematical Logic*.
**show full page**

##### Patrick Colonel Suppes (1922 – 2014)

American philosopher who has written on a variety of subjects, including mathematics.
**show full page**

##### Friend Hans Kierstead, Jr. (1922 – 2008)

American mathematician who was the problem editor of the *Journal of Recreational Mathematics*.
**show full page**

##### Henry Andrew Kierstead (1922 – 1990)

American mathematician who contributed to the *Journal of Recreational Mathematics*.
**show full page**

##### George Brown Arfken (b. 1922 )

American theoretical physicist and author of several mathematical physics texts.
**show full page**

##### Harvey Cohn (1923 – 2014)

American mathematician who majored in number theory.

Pioneered the use of computers for mathematical investigations.
**show full page**

##### Philip J. Davis (1923 – 2018)

American mathematician whose main work is in numerical analysis and approximation theory.
**show full page**

##### William Judson LeVeque (1923 – 2007)

American mathematician and administrator who worked primarily in number theory.
**show full page**

##### Tom Mike Apostol (1923 – 2016)

American mathematician of Greek origin best known for his textbooks and skill as a teacher.
**show full page**

##### Murray Ralph Spiegel (1923 – 1991)

American mathematician whose main body of work consists of a series of technical books on applied mathematics.
**show full page**

##### Howard Raiffa (b. 1924 )

American mathematician who mainly works in game theory and economics.
**show full page**

##### John Warner Backus (1924 – 2007)

American computer scientist, significantly involved in the development of several computer languages, including ALGOL and FORTRAN.

The metalanguage Backus-Naur Form (BNF) was named after him (who invented it) and Peter Naur (who refined it).
**show full page**

##### Mary Ellen Rudin (1924 – 2013)

American topologist best known for creating counterexamples to conjectures in point-set topology, and especially for being the first person to construct a Dowker Space, disproving a long-standing conjecture.

Born **Mary Ellen Estill**, under which name she published several papers before her marriage.
**show full page**

##### George Finlay Simmons (b. 1925 )

American mathematician who has worked in topology and classical analysis.

Renowned for both his teaching abilities and his first-class text books.
**show full page**

##### John Tate (b. 1925 )

American mathematician known for his contributions to algebraic number theory, algebraic geometry and arithmetic geometry.
**show full page**

##### Robert Duncan Luce (b. 1925 )

American mathematician known for his work in game theory and economics.
**show full page**

##### George Leitmann (b. 1925 )

American control theorist considered one of the leading authorities in optimal control theory and its applications.
**show full page**

##### Harold William Kuhn (1925 – 2014)

American mathematician who studied game theory.
**show full page**

##### Ernest Tilden Parker (1926 – 1991)

American mathematician best known for disproving Euler's Conjecture on Orthogonal Latin Squares with Sharadchandra Shankar Shrikhande and Raj Chandra Bose.
**show full page**

##### Donald John Lewis (1926 – 2015)

American mathematician specializing in number theory.
**show full page**

##### Martin Shubik (b. 1926 )

American economist, who is Professor Emeritus of Mathematical Institutional Economics at Yale University.
**show full page**

##### Robert Lawson Vaught (1926 – 2002)

American mathematician who mainly worked in mathematical logic, and was one of the founders of model theory.
**show full page**

##### Hilary Whitehall Putnam (1926 – 2016)

American mathematician and philosopher, who has written significantly on various subjects, such as the philosophy of logic and language acquisition.
**show full page**

##### Richard C. Jeffrey (1926 – 2002)

American mathematician who mainly worked in logic and probability theory.
**show full page**

##### Nesmith Cornett Ankeny (1927 – 1993)

American mathematician specialising in number theory.
**show full page**

##### Robert Gardner Bartle (1927 – 2003)

American mathematician specializing in real analysis.

Best known for his text books.
**show full page**

##### Reuben Hersh (b. 1927 )

American mathematician best known for his writings on the philosophy of mathematics.
**show full page**

##### Richard S. Pierce (1927 – 1992)

American mathematician who mainly worked in abstract algebra.
**show full page**

##### John Lewis Selfridge (1927 – 2010)

American mathematician who contributed to the fields of analytic number theory, computational number theory and combinatorics.

Proved in $1962$ that $78 \ 557$ is a Sierpiński number of the second kind.

Conjectured (with Wacław Franciszek Sierpiński) that it is also the smallest. This still has not been proven (see Sierpiński Problem).
**show full page**

##### Joseph Steven Madachy (1927 – 2014)

American research chemist, technical editor and recreational mathematician.
**show full page**

##### Benjamin Franklin Logan (1927 – 2015)

American electrical engineer and bluegrass music fiddler.

Corresponded with Donald E. Knuth, with whom he exchanged insights.
**show full page**

##### Wendell Helms Fleming (b. 1928 )

American mathematician specializing in geometrical analysis and stochastic differential equations.
**show full page**

##### Harold Seymour Shapiro (b. 1928 )

American mathematician best known for inventing the Shapiro polynomials and for pioneering work on quadrature domains.
**show full page**

##### Abner Shimony (1928 – 2015)

American physicist and philosopher of science specializing in quantum theory.
**show full page**

##### Joseph Bernard Kruskal (b. 1928 )

**Joseph Bernard Kruskal, Jr.** is an American mathematician working in the fields of statistics, computer science and graph theory, among others.
**show full page**

##### Ray Alden Kunze (1928 – 2014)

American mathematician whose research concerned the representation theory of groups and noncommutative harmonic analysis.
**show full page**

##### Martin David Davis (b. 1928 )

American mathematician working mainly in the field of mathematical logic.
**show full page**

##### Thomas Andrew Lehrer (b. 1928 )

**Tom Lehrer** was a mathematics lecturer at the University of California, Santa Cruz.

Far better known for his brief but successful musical career.
**show full page**

##### John Forbes Nash (1928 – 2015)

American mathematician who made fundamental contributions to game theory, differential geometry, and the study of partial differential equations
**show full page**

##### Louis Auslander (1928 – 1997)

Prolific American mathematician who worked in many fields, including Finsler geometry, geometry of solvmanifolds and nilmanifolds, locally affine spaces, many aspects of harmonic analysis, representation theory of solvable Lie groups, and multidimensional Fourier transforms and the design of signal sets for communications and radar.
**show full page**

##### Harvey Alan Dubner (b. 1928 )

American engineer and mathematician specializing in the mathematics of casino games and finding large primes.

Invented the point-count method for gaining an advantage in blackjack.
**show full page**

##### James Harold McKay (b. 1928 )

American mathematician best known for his work in group theory.
**show full page**

##### Henry W. Gould (b. 1928 )

American mathematician whose research has been in combinatorial analysis, number theory, special functions of mathematical physics, and the history of mathematics and astronomy.
**show full page**

##### Halsey Lawrence Royden (1928 – 1993)

American mathematician specialising in complex analysis, Riemann surfaces and differential geometry.
**show full page**

##### Donald G. Higman (1928 – 2006)

American mathematician noted for his discovery of the Higman-Sims Group, with Charles C. Sims.

His work contributed towards the discovery of several of the sporadic simple groups.
**show full page**

##### Barry Mitchell (b. 1930 )

American mathematician who has worked influentially in category theory.
**show full page**

##### Donald J. Newman (1930 – 2007)

American mathematician active in the fields of Complex Analysis, Number Theory and Approximation Theory.

Best known for his elementary proof of the Prime Number Theorem.
**show full page**

##### James Raymond Munkres (b. 1930 )

American mathematician and author of *Topology*, one of the most popular undergraduate topology textbooks.
**show full page**

##### Richard Merett Montague (1930 – 1971)

American mathematician and logician.

Proved that ZFC must contain infintely many axioms.
**show full page**

##### John Rolfe Isbell (1930 – 2005)

American mathematician best known for his work in topology and category theory.

Also published under the pseudonyms John Rainwater, M.G. Stanley and H.C. Enos.
**show full page**

##### Norman Woodason Johnson (b. 1930 )

American mathematician best known for enumerating all $92$ convex non-uniform polyhedra with regular faces.
**show full page**

##### John David Brillhart (b. 1930 )

American mathematician known for his work in integer factorization, including the development of the continued fraction factorization method.

Has been a principal participant in the Cunningham project.
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### 1931 and onwards

##### Kenneth Myron Hoffman (c. 1931 – 2008)

American mathematician whose primary area of research specialization was functional analysis.
**show full page**

##### Seymour Saul Lipschutz (b. 1931 )

American mathematician who is an author of technical books on pure mathematics and probability, including a collection of Schaum's Outlines.
**show full page**

##### Daniel Leonid Slotnick (1931 – 1985)

American mathematician and computer architect who pioneered the concept of parallelism in computer architectures.

Chief architect of the Illiac IV supercomputer.
**show full page**

##### John Winsor Pratt (b. 1931 )

American mathematician who has made contributions to research in risk aversion theory.
**show full page**

##### Herbert Saul Wilf (b. 1931 )

American mathematician who specializes in combinatorics and graph theory.

He has made available certain of his works for free download.
**show full page**

##### John Willard Milnor (b. 1931 )

American mathematician best known for his work in differential topology.
**show full page**

##### Rudolph Michael Najar (b. 1931 )

American mathematician with a research interest in elementary number theory.
**show full page**

##### Basil Gordon (1931 – 2012)

American mathematician specializing in number theory and combinatorics.

Worked with Wernher von Braun on the US's contribution to the Space Race.
**show full page**

##### Joseph F. Stephany (1932 – 2011)

American research scientist, and amateur chess player and mathematician.
**show full page**

##### Harry Lewis Nelson (b. 1932 )

American mathematician and computer programmer.

Member of the team that won the World Computer Chess Championship in $1983$ and $1986$.

Co-discoverer with David Slowinski of the $27$th Mersenne prime $2^{44 \, 497} − 1$ in $1979$.

Editor of the *Journal of Recreational Mathematics* for five years.
**show full page**

##### David Abram Antin (1932 – 2016)

American poet, critic and performance artist, who also translated various scientific and mathematical works.
**show full page**

##### Solomon Wolf Golomb (1932 – 2016)

American mathematician, engineer and professor of electrical engineering at the University of Southern California, best known for his works on mathematical games.

Invented Cheskers in $1948$ and coined the name.

Fully described polyominoes and pentominoes in $1953$

Specialized in problems of combinatorial analysis, number theory, coding theory and communications.

His game of Pentomino inspired Tetris.
**show full page**

##### Kenneth Ira Appel (1932 – 2013)

American mathematician who in 1976, along with Wolfgang Haken, proved the Four Color Theorem with the help of a computer.
**show full page**

##### Dana Stewart Scott (b. 1932 )

American computer scientist, logician and philosopher.
**show full page**

##### Theodore William Gamelin (b. 1933 )

American mathematician who majors in analysis.
**show full page**

##### Nils John Nilsson (b. 1933 )

American mathematician who was one of the founders in the field of artificial intelligence.
**show full page**

##### Stephen Hoel Schanuel (1933 – 2014)

American mathematician working in the fields of abstract algebra and category theory, number theory, and measure theory.

Known for Schanuel's Conjecture.
**show full page**

##### Paul Joseph Cohen (1934 – 2007)

American mathematician working in logic and set theory.

Best known for his work on the Continuum Hypothesis.
**show full page**

##### Robert B. Ash (1935 – 2015)

American mathematician working in various areas, including Information Theory and Discrete Mathematics
**show full page**

##### Ronald Lewis Graham (b. 1935 )

American mathematician famous for his work in the field of Ramsey theory.

Notable for introducing Graham's number, the largest number ever yet encountered in mathematics.

Popularized the concept of the Erdős number.

Husband of Fan Chung Graham, friend and colleague of Paul Erdős.
**show full page**

##### Herbert Bruce Enderton (1936 – 2010)

American mathematician best known for his textbooks in mathematical logic and set theory.

Also a popular educational contributor to various usenet groups.
**show full page**

##### Peter C. Fishburn (b. 1936 )

American statistician known as a pioneer in the field of decision-making processes.
**show full page**

##### Howard E. Sturgis (1936 – 1990)

American mathematician and computer scientist.

Co-designer (with John C. Shepherdson) of the Unlimited Register Machine, a refinement of the Turing machine.
**show full page**

##### Peter John Freyd (b. 1936 )

American mathematician known for work in category theory.
**show full page**

##### Thomas William Hungerford (1936 – 2014)

American mathematician working in algebra and mathematics education.
**show full page**

##### Robert W Floyd (1936 – 2001)

American computer scientist, who was active in discrete mathematics.

Noted for his work on parsing.

Introduced the concept of error diffusion for rendering images.

Pioneered the field of program verification using logical assertions. This contributed to what later became Hoare logic.
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##### Gary Theodore Chartrand (b. 1936 )

American mathematician who specializes in graph theory.

He is known for his textbooks on introductory graph theory and for the concept of a highly irregular graph.
**show full page**

##### Howard Jerome Keisler (b. 1936 )

American mathematician whose research has included model theory and non-standard analysis.
**show full page**

##### Peter Bruce Andrews (b. 1937 )

American mathematician best known for creating the TPS automated theorem prover.
**show full page**

##### Underwood Dudley (b. 1937 )

American mathematician best known for his popular writing.
**show full page**

##### James Burton Ax (1937 – 2006)

American mathematician who proved several results in algebra and number theory by using model theory.
**show full page**

##### Robert Butler Wilson (b. 1937 )

American economist known for his contributions to management science and business economics.
**show full page**

##### William Robert Alford (1937 – 2003)

American mathematician who worked in the field of number theory.
**show full page**

##### Alexander Hurwitz (b. 1937 )

American mathematician who found the $19$th and $20$th Mersenne primes $2^{4253} - 1$ and $2^{4423} - 1$ in $1961$.
**show full page**

##### Barry Charles Mazur (b. 1937 )

American mathematician who has worked in geometric topology and arithmetic topology.
**show full page**

##### Robert Berger (b. 1938 )

American mathematician known for devising the first aperiodic tiling, using a set of $20 \ 426$ distinct tile shapes.
**show full page**

##### Ian Mueller (1938 – 2010)

American scholar of ancient Greek philosophy of science and the reception of Plato and Aristotle in late antiquity.
**show full page**

##### J. Arthur Seebach (1938 – 1996)

**J. Arthur Seebach, Jr.** was an American mathematician best known for the groundbreaking *Counterexamples in Topology* which he co-authored with Lynn Arthur Steen, "... a counterexample to the view, widespread at the time, that undergraduates could neither do nor even contribute to research in mathematics."^{[1]}.

An early advocate for introducing computers into the educational curriculum.
**show full page**

##### Charles Coffin Sims (b. 1938 )

American mathematician active in the field of group theory.

With Donald G. Higman, discovered the Higman-Sims Group.

Developed software leading up to the discovery of the Lyons Group (also known as Lyons-Sims Group) and O'Nan Group (also known as O'Nan-Sims Group).
**show full page**

##### Donald Ervin Knuth (b. 1938 )

Pronounced **K-Nooth**.

Hugely influential American computer scientist famous for his multi-volume *The Art of Computer Programming*, still famously a work in progress.

The "father of analysis of algorithms".

Pioneered research and design of the representation of mathematics via computer.^{[2]} Author of *Computers and Typesetting*, another multi-volume work.
**show full page**

##### Richard Mansfield Dudley (b. 1938 )

American mathematician whose main fields of study are real analysis and probability theory.
**show full page**

##### George Eyre Andrews (b. 1938 )

American mathematician best known for his work in number theory.

Famous for discovering Srīnivāsa Aiyangār Rāmānujan's Lost Notebook in 1976.
**show full page**

##### Lorraine Lois Foster (b. 1938 )

American mathematician working in number theory and the theory of mathematical symmetry.

First woman to receive a Ph.D. in mathematics from California Institute of Technology.
**show full page**

##### John Bligh Conway (b. 1939 )

American mathematician best known for his comprehensive books on functional and complex analysis.
**show full page**

##### David Breyer Singmaster (b. 1939 )

American mathematician best known for his work in the field of recreational mathematics, in particular Rubik's cube.
**show full page**

##### Stephen Arthur Cook (b. 1939 )

American mathematician and computer scientist who has made considerable progress in the field of complexity theory.
**show full page**

##### Charles Chapman Pugh (b. 1940 )

American mathematician who specializes in dynamic systems.
**show full page**

##### Alexander G. Ramm (b. 1940 )

Russian-born American mathematician who specializes in differential and integral equations, operator theory, ill-posed and inverse problems, scattering theory, functional analysis, spectral theory, numerical analysis, theoretical electrical engineering, signal estimation, and tomography.
**show full page**

##### Michael David Spivak (b. 1940 )

American mathematician specializing in differential geometry.

Also noted for his textbooks.
**show full page**

##### Daniel Gray Quillen (1940 – 2011)

American mathematician mainly working in the field of algebraic topology.
**show full page**

##### George Stephen Boolos (1940 – 1996)

American philosopher who also worked in the field of mathematical logic.
**show full page**

##### Elwyn Ralph Berlekamp (b. 1940 )

American mathematician and computer scientist famous for his contributions towards game theory.

Also the innovator of several computer algorithms.
**show full page**

##### David Anthony Klarner (1940 – 1999)

American mathematician, author, and educator.

Known for his work in combinatorial enumeration, polyominoes and box-packing.
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##### Lynn Arthur Steen (1941 – 2015)

American mathematician best known for the groundbreaking *Counterexamples in Topology* which he co-authored with J. Arthur Seebach, Jr..
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##### Joel William Robbin (b. 1941 )

American mathematician specialising in mathematical logic and matrix algebra.
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##### Roland Edwin Larson (b. 1941 )

**Roland Edwin ("Ron") Larson** is an American professor of mathematics, best known for the widely-used books (covering all levels from from pre-school to college) written by him, often in collaboration.
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##### Robert James McEliece (b. 1942 )

American mathematician and engineering professor best known for his work in information theory.
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##### Joseph Anthony Gallian (b. 1942 )

American mathematician who has been awarded for the quality of his teaching.
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##### Melvin Fitting (b. 1942 )

American mathematician specialising in logic.
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##### Alfred S. Posamentier (b. 1942 )

American educator, writer and commentator on American mathematics and science education.
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##### Robert Everist Greene (b. 1943 )

American mathematician whose main area of work is in differential geometry.
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##### Ralph William Gosper, Jr. (b. 1943 )

American mathematician and pioneering computer programmer.

Considered by some to be one of the founders of the hacker community.
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##### George Mark Bergman (b. 1943 )

American mathematician whose primary research area is algebra, in particular associative rings, universal algebra, category theory and the construction of counterexamples.

Mathematical logic is an additional research area.
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##### Herbert Kenneth Kunen (b. 1943 )

American mathematician, better known as **Kenneth Kunen**, working in set theory.
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##### Nicholas Michael Katz (b. 1943 )

American mathematician working in the fields of algebraic geometry, particularly on p-adic methods, monodromy and moduli problems, and number theory.
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##### Carl Bernard Pomerance (b. 1944 )

American mathematician specialising in number theory.
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##### Vaughan Ronald Pratt (b. 1944 )

American mathematician specialising in computer science.
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##### Bailey Whitfield Diffie (b. 1944 )

American mathematician and cryptographer.

One of the pioneers of public-key cryptography

Inventor with Martin Edward Hellman of the trapdoor function.
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##### Hugh Lowell Montgomery (b. 1944 )

American mathematician best known for his work in analytic number theory and mathematical analysis.
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##### Melvyn Bernard Nathanson (b. 1944 )

American mathematician specialising in, particularly additive and combinatorial, number theory.
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##### Mitchell Jay Feigenbaum (b. 1944 )

American mathematical physicist whose pioneering studies in chaos theory led to the discovery of the Feigenbaum constants.
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##### Robert Louis Griess, Jr. (b. 1945 )

American mathematician working on finite simple groups and vertex algebras.

Constructed the Fischer-Griess Monster using the Griess algebra.
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##### Edward M. Reingold (b. 1945 )

American computer scientist active in the fields of algorithms, data structures, graph drawing, and calendrical calculations.
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##### Persi Warren Diaconis (b. 1945 )

American mathematician and former professional magician of Greek descent, best known for tackling mathematical problems involving randomness and randomization, such as coin flipping and shuffling playing cards.
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##### Douglas Richard Hofstadter (b. 1945 )

American mathematician and philosopher most noted for the books he has written.

In particular, famous for being the author of *Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid*.

Between 1981 and 1983, he took over from Martin Gardner the task of writing the *Mathematical Games* column in Scientific American, which he renamed to *Metamagical Themas*.
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##### Samuel Standfield Wagstaff Jr. (b. 1945 )

American mathematician and computer scientist, whose research interests are in the areas of cryptography, parallel computation, and analysis of algorithms, especially number theoretic algorithms.
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##### Martin Golubitsky (b. 1945 )

**Marty Golubitsky** is an American mathematician specialising in mathematical biosciences.
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##### Martin Edward Hellman (b. 1945 )

American mathematician and cryptographer.

One of the pioneers of public-key cryptography

Inventor with Bailey Whitfield Diffie and Ralph C. Merkle of the technique of public key cryptography.
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##### Leonard Max Adleman (b. 1945 )

American cryptographer and software engineer, best known for his involvement in the creation of the RSA algorithm.

Successfully used DNA as a computation technique.

Supposed to have coined the term **virus** in the context of computer programs.
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##### Derek A. Zave (1946 – 1987)

American computer scientist who has done research into power series with harmonic numbers.
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##### Rudolf von Bitter Rucker (b. 1946 )

**Rudy Rucker** is an American mathematician, computer scientist, science fiction author and philosopher.

Best known (in the field of mathematics) for his work *Infinity and the Mind*.
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##### William Paul Thurston (1946 – 2012)

American mathematician who specialised in low-dimensional topology.

Won the Fields Medal in 1982 for his work on $3$-manifolds.
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##### Ronald Linn Rivest (b. 1947 )

American cryptographer and software engineer, best known for his involvement in the creation of the RSA algorithm.

Also well-known for being one of the contributors to 1990: Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson and Ronald L. Rivest: *Introduction to Algorithms*.
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##### Gerald Budge Folland (b. 1947 )

American mathematician whose areas of interest are harmonic analysis (on both Euclidean space and Lie groups), differential equations, and mathematical physics.
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##### Peter Lawrence Montgomery (b. 1947 )

American mathematician whose specialty is cryptography.
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##### William Wade Dunham (b. 1947 )

American mathematician specialising in topology.

Later became interested in the history of mathematics, particularly that concerning Leonhard Euler.
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##### Richard E. Crandall (1947 – 2012)

American physicist and computer scientist who made contributions to computational number theory.
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##### Michael R. Genesereth (b. 1948 )

American professor of computer science.
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##### Richard Schroeppel (b. 1948 )

American mathematician whose research has included magic squares, elliptic curves and cryptography..
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##### Paul Robert Milgrom (b. 1948 )

American economist who is also an expert in game theory, specifically auction theory and pricing strategies.

Co-creator of the No-Trade Theorem with Nancy Stokey.
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##### John Patton Burgess (b. 1948 )

American philosopher interested in logic and the philosophy of mathematics.
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##### David Harold Bailey (b. 1948 )

American mathematician and computer scientist best known as the co-creator (with Peter Benjamin Borwein and Simon Plouffe) of the BBP Algorithm.
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##### Lee Vernon Stiff (b. 1949 )

American mathematician working mainly in the field of mathematics education research.

Author and co-author of several mathematics textbooks.
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##### Lawrence Craig Evans (b. 1949 )

American mathematician whose research is in the field of nonlinear partial differential equations, primarily elliptic equations.
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##### David Marc Kreps (b. 1950 )

American game theorist and economist, known for his analysis of dynamic choice models and non-cooperative game theory, particularly the idea of sequential equilibrium.
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##### Eric Stark Maskin (b. 1950 )

American economist who introduced the discipline of mechanism design theory.
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##### Lawrence Clinton Washington (b. 1951 )

American mathematician specializing in number theory.
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##### Steven George Krantz (b. 1951 )

American mathematician best known for his writing and teaching.
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##### Roger Bruce Myerson (b. 1951 )

American economist and political scientist.

Also active in the fields of game theory and mechanism design.
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##### Robert Scott Rumely (b. 1952 )

American professor of mathematics specializing in number theory and arithmetic geometry.

He is one of the inventors of the Adleman-Pomerance-Rumely Primality Test.
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##### Charles Eric Leiserson (b. 1953 )

American computer scientist, specializing in the theory of parallel computing and distributed computing.

Best known as the co-author of *Introduction to Algorithms*, along with Thomas H. Cormen, Ronald L. Rivest and Cliff Stein.
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##### Glenn H. Stevens (b. 1953 )

American mathematician and educator, whose research specialties are number theory, automorphic forms, and arithmetic geometry.
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##### Oren Patashnik (b. 1954 )

American computer scientist best known for co-authoring *Concrete Mathematics: A Foundation for Computer Science* with Ronald L. Graham and Donald E. Knuth.
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##### James Gleick (b. 1954 )

American author and journalist known for his books about the history of science.
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##### Michael Keith (b. 1955 )

American mathematician and software engineer, best known in the mathematical community for his work in the field of recreational mathematics.

Also known as the author of works of constrained writing.
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##### David Knudsen Levine (b. 1955 )

American economist working in game theory.
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##### Joseph Hillel Silverman (b. 1955 )

American mathematician whose work has been in number theory, arithmetic geometry, arithmetic dynamics and cryptography.
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##### David Allen Bayer (b. 1955 )

American mathematician known for his contributions in algebra and symbolic computation and for his consulting work in the movie industry.
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##### Thomas H. Cormen (b. 1956 )

American mathematician and computer scientist, best known for being the co-author of *Introduction to Algorithms*, along with Charles E. Leiserson, Ronald L. Rivest and Cliff Stein.
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##### Paul Hoffman (b. 1956 )

American author, science educator, food entrepreneur and occasional writer on mathematics.

Also a puzzlemaster under the pseudonym Dr. Crypton.
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##### Colin Conrad Adams (b. 1956 )

American mathematician, humorist and prolific writer active in knot theory and topology.

Active in combating the too-common psychological condition of math anxiety.
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##### Drew Fudenberg (b. 1957 )

American mathematician working on game theory, including equilibrium theory, learning in games, and evolutionary game theory.
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##### Clifford Alan Pickover (b. 1957 )

American mathematician whose main research area is fractals.

Also a prolific popular writer on several topics.
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##### George F. Woltman (b. 1957 )

American mathematician and computer scientist who is the founder of the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search (GIMPS).
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##### Mark Steven Manasse (b. 1958 )

American computer scientist and mathematician who works in the field of algorithmic number theory

Part of the team which factorised the $9$th Fermat number.
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##### Ariel T. Glenn (b. 1960 )

American mathematician and software engineer best noted for finding the Mersenne prime $M_{21 \, 701}$, alongside Landon Curt Noll, while still at high school.
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##### Landon Curt Noll (b. 1960 )

American mathematician best noted for finding the two Mersenne primes $M_{21\ 701}$ and $M_{23\ 209}$ while still at high school (the first together with Laura Ariel Nickel, now Ariel T. Glenn).
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##### Kenneth Keeler (b. 1961 )

**Kenneth "Ken" Keeler** is an American mathematician who passes the time between theorems writing episodes of *Futurama*.

The Futurama episode The Prisoner of Benda features an application of what we on $\mathsf{Pr} \infty \mathsf{fWiki}$ are going to call *the Futurama Theorem*. Who said permutation theory was boring?
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##### John Carlos Baez (b. 1961 )

American mathematician and physicist known for his work in spin foams in loop quantum gravity.

Also known for his writings on octonions and higher-order Clifford algebras.
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##### Clifford Seth Stein (b. 1965 )

American computer scientist and professor of industrial engineering and operations research.

Well-known as one of the contributors to later editions of *Introduction to Algorithms*, along with Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson and Ronald L. Rivest .
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##### Noam David Elkies (b. 1966 )

American mathematician and chess master.

With Arthur Oliver Lonsdale Atkin, extended Schoof's Algorithm to create the Schoof-Elkies-Atkin Algorithm.

Found the first known counterexample to Euler's Quartic Conjecture.
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##### Jordan Stuart Ellenberg (b. 1971 )

American mathematician working mainly within arithmetic geometry.
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##### Danica Mae McKellar (b. 1975 )

American mathematician better known as an actor.

Also known for her books aimed specifically at middle-school and high-school girls to increase their confidence in mathematics.
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##### Nathaniel Read Silver (b. 1978 )

American statistician and writer who analyzes baseball and elections.

Famous for successfully calling the outcomes in 49 of the 50 states in the 2008 U.S. Presidential election.
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##### Victoria Hart (b. 1988 )

American mathematician best known for the videos she has published on YouTube under the name **Vi Hart**.
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## References

- ↑ In Memorium: J. Arthur Seebach, Jr.: Lynn Arthur Steen.
- ↑ It is impossible accurately to assess the impact of $\TeX$ on the ability to communicate mathematics via computer. This website would not have been possible without it.