# Mathematician:Mathematicians/Sorted By Nation/United States

For more comprehensive information on the lives and works of mathematicians through the ages, see the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, created by John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson.

*The army of those who have made at least one definite contribution to mathematics as we know it soon becomes a mob as we look back over history; 6,000 or 8,000 names press forward for some word from us to preserve them from oblivion, and once the bolder leaders have been recognised it becomes largely a matter of arbitrary, illogical legislation to judge who of the clamouring multitude shall be permitted to survive and who be condemned to be forgotten.*- -- Eric Temple Bell:
*Men of Mathematics*, 1937, Victor Gollancz, London

- -- Eric Temple Bell:

## USA

### $\text {1701}$ – $\text {1800}$

##### Thomas Godfrey $($$\text {1704}$ – $\text {1749}$$)$

American inventor who invented the sextant, independently of John Hadley.

One of the founder members of the American Philosophical Society.
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##### Nathaniel Bowditch $($$\text {1773}$ – $\text {1838}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his work on ocean navigation.
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##### Joseph Henry $($$\text {1797}$ – $\text {1878}$$)$

American scientist who discovered the electromagnetic phenomenon of self-inductance.

Discovered mutual inductance independently of Michael Faraday.

Developed the electromagnet into a practical device.
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### $\text {1801}$ – $\text {1850}$

##### Benjamin Peirce $($$\text {1809}$ – $\text {1880}$$)$

American mathematician and logician who has been called "The founding father of modern abstract algebra".

Like George Boole, attempted to put logic on a sound mathematical footing.

He also contributed to many other areas of mathematics.

Proved that there is no odd perfect number with fewer than four prime factors.

Introduced the terms idempotence and nilpotence in $1870$, in his work *Linear Associative Algebra*.

Father of Charles Sanders Peirce.
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##### Elias Loomis $($$\text {1811}$ – $\text {1889}$$)$

American mathematician and physicist best known for his textbooks.

Also known for his thorough investigation into the geomagnetic storm of 1859.
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##### Edward J. Goodwin $($$\text {1825}$ – $\text {1902}$$)$

Indiana physician and amateur mathematician who believed he had squared the circle, trisected the angle and doubled the cube.

He proposed a bill to allow for the charging of royalties for the use of the value of $\pi$ (pi) that he had calculated.

It was rejected before the second reading through the efforts of Clarence Abiathar Waldo.
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##### John Williams Nystrom $($$\text {1825}$ – $\text {1885}$$)$

Swedish, later American, civil engineer, inventor, and author.

Best known for inventing a calculating machine and a system of hexadecimal notation.
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##### Artemas Martin $($$\text {1835}$ – $\text {1918}$$)$

Self-educated American mathematician best known as a contributor to puzzle columns in popular magazines.
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##### Josiah Willard Gibbs $($$\text {1839}$ – $\text {1903}$$)$

American scientist who made important theoretical contributions to physics, chemistry, and mathematics.
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##### Charles Sanders Peirce $($$\text {1839}$ – $\text {1914}$$)$

American chemist who contributed to the fields of logic and mathematical philosophy, in particular the theory of the use of signs.

Laid some of the groundwork for the mathematical discipline of category theory.

Perceived in $1886$ that the functions of logic can be carried out by electronic circuitry.

Son of Benjamin Peirce.
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##### Samuel Loyd $($$\text {1841}$ – $\text {1911}$$)$

American chess player, chess composer, puzzle author, and recreational mathematician.
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##### Wooster Woodruff Beman $($$\text {1850}$ – $\text {1922}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his text books and translations.
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### $\text {1851}$ – $\text {1900}$

##### Clarence Abiathar Waldo $($$\text {1852}$ – $\text {1926}$$)$

American mathematician, author and educator today most famous for the role he played in the Indiana Pi Bill affair.
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##### George Arthur Plimpton $($$\text {1855}$ – $\text {1936}$$)$

American publisher and philanthropist, whose contribution to mathematics was his collection of rare ancient mathematical works which he donated to the Nicholas Murray Butler Library of Columbia University.
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##### Florian Cajori $($$\text {1859}$ – $\text {1930}$$)$

Swiss-born American mathematician who specialized in (and in fact pioneered) the field of mathematics history.
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##### David Eugene Smith $($$\text {1860}$ – $\text {1944}$$)$

American mathematician and educator best known for his translations of classics.
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##### Frank Nelson Cole $($$\text {1861}$ – $\text {1926}$$)$

American mathematician famous for finding the factors of the Mersenne number $M_{67}$. (It had already been demonstrated by Édouard Lucas in $1876$ that it is not prime, but till this time the factors had not been found.)

Cole's demonstration of this in $1903$ took the form of a now famous lecture *On The Factorization of Large Numbers* in which he performed the necessary arithmetic on a blackboard, delivering the only totally wordless lecture in recorded history.

The American Mathematical Society's *Cole Prize* was named in his honor.
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##### Eliakim Hastings Moore $($$\text {1862}$ – $\text {1932}$$)$

American mathematician working in abstract algebra and the foundations of geometry, among others.
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##### William Fogg Osgood $($$\text {1864}$ – $\text {1943}$$)$

American mathematician working in complex analysis, in particular conformal mapping and uniformization of analytic functions, and calculus of variations.

Wrote on the theory of the gyroscope.
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##### James P. Pierpont $($$\text {1866}$ – $\text {1938}$$)$

American mathematician working first in Galois theory, and then in real and complex analysis.
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##### Derrick Norman Lehmer $($$\text {1867}$ – $\text {1938}$$)$

American mathematician active mainly in the field of number theory.

The father of Derrick Henry ("Dick") Lehmer.
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##### Charles Albert Noble $($$\text {1867}$ – $\text {1962}$$)$

American mathematician who worked mainly on differential equations.
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##### Maxime Bôcher $($$\text {1867}$ – $\text {1918}$$)$

American mathematician who worked on differential equations, series, and algebra.
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##### Edward Brind Escott $($$\text {1868}$ – $\text {1946}$$)$

American mathematics teacher and insurance actuary whose expertise was in number theory.

Contributed a number of results in recreational mathematics.
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##### Robert Andrews Millikan $($$\text {1868}$ – $\text {1953}$$)$

American experimental physicist who worked with Harvey Fletcher on measuring the elementary electric charge.

Also worked on the photoelectric effect.
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##### Frank Irwin $($$\text {1868}$ – $\text {1948}$$)$

American mathematician who worked in the field of invariants.
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##### Mary Frances Winston Newson $($$\text {1869}$ – $\text {1959}$$)$

American mathematician who became the first female American to receive a PhD in mathematics from a European university, namely the University of Göttingen in Germany.
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##### Horace Scudder Uhler $($$\text {1872}$ – $\text {1956}$$)$

American physicist who worked on geometrical optics, spectroscopy and X-rays.

As a mathematician, demonstrated several Mersenne numbers to be composite without finding one single Mersenne prime.

Also calculated the values of many irrational numbers such as logarithms, reciprocals and roots to a colosssal number of decimal places.

Published the value of $\map {\log_{10} } {9^{9^9} }$ to $250$ decimal places in $1947$.
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##### Julian Lowell Coolidge $($$\text {1873}$ – $\text {1954}$$)$

American mathematician and a professor and chairman of the Harvard University Mathematics Department.
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##### Leonard Eugene Dickson $($$\text {1874}$ – $\text {1954}$$)$

One of the first American mathematicians to work in abstract algebra.

Also remembered for his history of number theory.
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##### Edward Vermilye Huntington $($$\text {1874}$ – $\text {1952}$$)$

American mathematician who worked on the foundations of mathematics.
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##### Frank Lauren Hitchcock $($$\text {1875}$ – $\text {1957}$$)$

American mathematician and physicist known for his formulation of the transportation problem in $1941$.
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##### Gilbert Newton Lewis $($$\text {1875}$ – $\text {1946}$$)$

American physical chemist who also researched on relativity and quantum physics.

Coined the term photon in $1926$.
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##### Gilbert Ames Bliss $($$\text {1876}$ – $\text {1951}$$)$

American mathematician, known for his work on the calculus of variations.
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##### Earle Raymond Hedrick $($$\text {1876}$ – $\text {1943}$$)$

American mathematician who adopted the position of vice-president of the University of California.
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##### Joseph George Coffin $($$\text {1877}$ – $\text {1954}$$)$

American mathematician who worked in vector analysis.
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##### Edward Kasner $($$\text {1878}$ – $\text {1955}$$)$

American mathematician best known now for coining the terms googol and googolplex.
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##### Robert Daniel Carmichael $($$\text {1879}$ – $\text {1967}$$)$

American mathematician who contributed mainly to the fields of differential equations and number theory.
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##### Edwin Bidwell Wilson $($$\text {1879}$ – $\text {1964}$$)$

American mathematician working in vector analysis and probability theory.
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##### John Wesley Young $($$\text {1879}$ – $\text {1932}$$)$

American mathematician who introduced the axioms of projective geometry with Oswald Veblen.
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##### Alain Campbell White $($$\text {1880}$ – $\text {1951}$$)$

American botanist who also composed chess problems.
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##### Oswald Veblen $($$\text {1880}$ – $\text {1960}$$)$

American mathematician, geometer and topologist, whose work found application in atomic physics and the theory of relativity.

Proved the Jordan Curve Theorem in 1905.
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##### Percy Williams Bridgman $($$\text {1882}$ – $\text {1961}$$)$

American physicist awarded for his work on the physics of high pressures.

Wrote extensively on the scientific method and other aspects of the philosophy of science.
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##### Henry Maurice Sheffer $($$\text {1882}$ – $\text {1964}$$)$

American logician famous for proving in $1913$ that the logical NAND operator is functionally complete. (This had previously been noted by Charles Sanders Peirce in $1880$ but not published till $1933$.)
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##### Harry Schultz Vandiver $($$\text {1882}$ – $\text {1973}$$)$

American mathematician known for his work in number theory.
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##### Robert Lee Moore $($$\text {1882}$ – $\text {1974}$$)$

American mathematician known for his work in general topology.

Also known for the Moore method of teaching university mathematics.
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##### Clarence Irving Lewis $($$\text {1883}$ – $\text {1964}$$)$

American philosopher logician recognized as being a leading authority on symbolic logic.

An early proponent of the work of Charles Sanders Peirce, and also referenced the logical works of Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz.

Did considerable work to analyze the semantic meaning of the conditional statement.

Analyzed modal logic.
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##### James Henry Weaver $($$\text {1883}$ – $\text {1942}$$)$

American mathematician who co-authored books with Robert Daniel Carmichael.
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##### George David Birkhoff $($$\text {1884}$ – $\text {1944}$$)$

American mathematician best known for what is now known as the Ergodic Theorem.

The father of Garrett Birkhoff.
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##### Harvey Fletcher $($$\text {1884}$ – $\text {1981}$$)$

American experimental physicist who made contributions in acoustics, electrical engineering, speech, medicine, music, atomic physics, sound pictures, and education.

Worked with Robert Andrews Millikan on measuring the elementary electric charge.
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##### Frank Hyneman Knight $($$\text {1885}$ – $\text {1972}$$)$

American economist whose work inspired some of the early developments in game theory.

Developed the argument which was eventually named Wardrop's First Principle (for John Glen Wardrop).
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##### Louis Joel Mordell $($$\text {1888}$ – $\text {1972}$$)$

American-born British mathematician known for his pioneering research in number theory.
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##### James Waddell Alexander II $($$\text {1888}$ – $\text {1971}$$)$

American mathematician who did pioneering work in topology and knot theory.
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##### Jekuthiel Ginsburg $($$\text {1889}$ – $\text {1957}$$)$

American mathematician best known for founding *Scripta Mathematica*.
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##### Vera Sanford $($$\text {1891}$ – $\text {1971}$$)$

American mathematician and historian.
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##### William Frederick Friedman $($$\text {1891}$ – $\text {1969}$$)$

American cryptographer instrumental in breaking Japan's PURPLE cipher before America's entrance into World War II.
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##### Harold Calvin Marston Morse $($$\text {1892}$ – $\text {1977}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his work on the calculus of variations in the large.

Introduced the technique of differential topology now known as Morse theory.
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##### Herman Lyle Smith $($$\text {1892}$ – $\text {1950}$$)$

American mathematician who worked in the field of set theory.
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##### Carl Einar Hille $($$\text {1894}$ – $\text {1980}$$)$

American mathematician best known for the books he authored or coauthored.
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##### Norbert Wiener $($$\text {1894}$ – $\text {1964}$$)$

American mathematician who worked mainly in computer science, stochastic processes and cybernetics.
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##### Henry Roy Brahana $($$\text {1895}$ – $\text {1972}$$)$

American mathematician specializing in metabelian groups and related geometric structures.

Also known for his contributions towards solution of the Four Color Theorem.
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##### John Perry Ballantine $($$\text {1896}$ – $\text {1970}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his work on improvements to classroom calculation techniques.

Inventor of the table slide rule.
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##### Lawrence Murray Graves $($$\text {1896}$ – $\text {1973}$$)$

American mathematician and author of textbooks.
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##### Raymond Louis Wilder $($$\text {1896}$ – $\text {1982}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his writing on the subject of the philosophy of mathematics.
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##### Lincoln La Paz $($$\text {1897}$ – $\text {1985}$$)$

American mathematician and pioneer in the field of meteorics.

During World War II, served as research mathematician at the New Mexico Proving Grounds.
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##### Jesse Douglas $($$\text {1897}$ – $\text {1965}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his general solution to Plateau's Problem.
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##### Charles Wilderman Trigg $($$\text {1898}$ – $\text {1989}$$)$

American engineer, mathematician and educator.

Best known nowadays for his work in the field of recreational mathematics.
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##### David Vernon Widder $($$\text {1898}$ – $\text {1990}$$)$

American mathematician mainly working in analyis.

He was highly regarded for his teaching abilities.

The author of the textbook *Advanced Calculus*.
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##### Arthur Herbert Copeland $($$\text {1898}$ – $\text {1970}$$)$

American mathematician whose main interest was in the foundations of probability.

Worked with Paul Erdős on the Copeland-Erdős constant.
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##### Philip Franklin $($$\text {1898}$ – $\text {1965}$$)$

American mathematician and professor whose work was primarily focused in analysis.

Also famous for his work on the Four Color Theorem.
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##### Ruel Vance Churchill $($$\text {1899}$ – $\text {1987}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his textbooks.
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##### Haskell Brooks Curry $($$\text {1900}$ – $\text {1982}$$)$

American mathematician and logician, best known for his work in combinatory logic and for Curry's Paradox.
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##### John Clarke Slater $($$\text {1900}$ – $\text {1976}$$)$

American physicist who made major contributions to the theory of the electronic structure of atoms, molecules and solids.
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### $\text {1901}$ – $\text {1930}$

##### Frank J. Ayres, Jr. $($$\text {1901}$ – $\text {1994}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his text books.
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##### Michael Goldberg $($$\text {1902}$ – $\text {1990}$$)$

American mathematician best known for the Goldberg polyhedron.
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##### Mentzer Russell Wehr $($$\text {1902}$ – $\text {1984}$$)$

American physicist with a career in teaching.
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##### Joseph Warner Howe $($$\text {1902}$ – $\text {1983}$$)$

American physicist working mainly in the field of fluid mechanics and hydraulics.
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##### Carolyn Eisele $($$\text {1902}$ – $\text {2000}$$)$

American mathematician and historian of mathematics known as an expert on the works of Charles Sanders Peirce.
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##### Hubert Stanley Wall $($$\text {1902}$ – $\text {1971}$$)$

American mathematician who worked primarily in the field of continued fractions.

One of the leading proponents of the Moore method of teaching.
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##### Marshall Harvey Stone $($$\text {1903}$ – $\text {1989}$$)$

American mathematician who contributed to real analysis, functional analysis, and the study of boolean algebras.
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##### John Francis Riordan $($$\text {1903}$ – $\text {1988}$$)$

American mathematician and the author of major early works in combinatorics.

Also contributed significantly to the world of literature and poetry.
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##### Alonzo Church $($$\text {1903}$ – $\text {1995}$$)$

American mathematician who pioneered in the field of computability theory and the foundations of computer science.

Best known for his lambda calculus, Church's Theorem and Church's Thesis.
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##### John von Neumann $($$\text {1903}$ – $\text {1957}$$)$

Hungarian-American mathematician who made major contributions to a vast range of fields, including set theory, functional analysis, quantum mechanics, ergodic theory, continuous geometry, economics, computer science, numerical analysis and statistics, to name but a few.

Founded the field of game theory in collaboration with Oskar Morgenstern.

Generally regarded as one of the foremost mathematicians in modern history.
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##### Aline Huke Frink $($$\text {1904}$ – $\text {2000}$$)$

American mathematician.
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##### Edward James McShane $($$\text {1904}$ – $\text {1989}$$)$

American mathematician noted for his advancements of the calculus of variations, integration theory, stochastic calculus, and exterior ballistics.
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##### Clifton Paul Fadiman $($$\text {1904}$ – $\text {1999}$$)$

American intellectual, author, editor, radio and television personality who edited some mathematically-based anthologies.
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##### Stephen Barr $($$\text {1904}$ – $\text {1989}$$)$

American freelance writer who turned his hand to mathematics, mainly recreational and topological.
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##### Derrick Henry Lehmer $($$\text {1905}$ – $\text {1991}$$)$

American mathematician active mainly in the field of number theory.

Most famous for designing the Lucas-Lehmer Test for determining the primality of Mersenne numbers.

The son of Derrick Norman Lehmer, and married to Emma Lehmer, née Trotskaia.
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##### James Andrew Clarkson $($$\text {1906}$ – $\text {1970}$$)$

American mathematician and professor of mathematics who specialized in number theory.

Known for proving inequalities in Hölder spaces, and derived from them, the uniform convexity of $L^p$ spaces.
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##### Hunter Rouse $($$\text {1906}$ – $\text {1996}$$)$

American physicist working mainly in the field of fluid mechanics and hydraulics.
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##### Henry Nelson Goodman $($$\text {1906}$ – $\text {1998}$$)$

American philosopher, known for his work on counterfactuals, mereology, the problem of induction, irrealism, and aesthetics.
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##### Carl Benjamin Boyer $($$\text {1906}$ – $\text {1976}$$)$

American historian of mathematics and science.
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##### Nelson James Dunford $($$\text {1906}$ – $\text {1986}$$)$

American mathematician, known for his work in functional analysis, namely integration of vector valued functions, ergodic theory, and linear operators.
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##### Hassler Whitney $($$\text {1907}$ – $\text {1989}$$)$

American mathematician who worked mainly in topology.
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##### Henry Scheffé $($$\text {1907}$ – $\text {1977}$$)$

American statistician known for the Lehmann-Scheffé Theorem and Scheffé's Method.
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##### Holbrook Mann MacNeille $($$\text {1907}$ – $\text {1973}$$)$

American mathematician who worked for the United States Atomic Energy Commission before becoming the first Executive Director of the American Mathematical Society.
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##### James Roy Newman $($$\text {1907}$ – $\text {1966}$$)$

American mathematician and historian of mathematics best known for his writings and popularisations.
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##### Edwin Mattison McMillan $($$\text {1907}$ – $\text {1991}$$)$

American physicist and working in nuclear science.

Also worked on the mathematics of computation.
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##### John Barkley Rosser Sr. $($$\text {1907}$ – $\text {1989}$$)$

American logician best known for his work in mathematical logic.
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##### Eugene Purdy Northrop $($$\text {1908}$ – $\text {1969}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his writings on the subject of paradoxes.
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##### John Charles Chenoweth McKinsey $($$\text {1908}$ – $\text {1953}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his work on mathematical logic and game theory. He also made significant contributions to modal logic.
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##### Morris Kline $($$\text {1908}$ – $\text {1992}$$)$

American physicist, mathematics teacher, historian, and agitator for the teaching of the New Mathematics in schools.
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##### Willard Van Orman Quine $($$\text {1908}$ – $\text {2000}$$)$

Legendary American philosopher and logician, known by his friends as **Van**.

Proposed three systems of axiomatic set theory.

The word **quine** was coined by Douglas R. Hofstadter in his classic 1979 work *Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid*, in which what is now known as Quine's Paradox was discussed at length.

The word **quine** is now used for a computer program whose output is itself.
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##### Leon Bankoff $($$\text {1908}$ – $\text {1997}$$)$

American dentist and amateur mathematician best known for his construction of the Bankoff circle.
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##### Willard Frank Libby $($$\text {1908}$ – $\text {1980}$$)$

American physical chemist noted for his role in the $1949$ development of radiometric dating.
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##### Stephen Cole Kleene $($$\text {1909}$ – $\text {1994}$$)$

American mathematician best known as one of the great pioneers in the field of recursion theory.
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##### Thomas Weymon Adair $($$\text {1909}$ – $\text {2007}$$)$

American professor of physics known for his textbooks.
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##### Arthur Sard $($$\text {1909}$ – $\text {1980}$$)$

American mathematician, famous for his work in differential topology and in spline interpolation.
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##### Saunders Mac Lane $($$\text {1909}$ – $\text {2005}$$)$

American mathematician who cofounded category theory with Samuel Eilenberg.

Introduced the diagrammatic approach to mathematics, in particular pioneering the use of commutative diagrams.
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##### Victor Lyle Streeter $($$\text {1909}$ – $\text {2015}$$)$

American mathematician specialising in fluid mechanics.
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##### Sumner Byron Myers $($$\text {1910}$ – $\text {1955}$$)$

American mathematician specializing in topology and differential geometry.
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##### Joseph Leo Doob $($$\text {1910}$ – $\text {2004}$$)$

American mathematician specializing in analysis and probability theory.

Developed the theory of martingales.
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##### Norman Earl Steenrod $($$\text {1910}$ – $\text {1971}$$)$

American mathematician most widely known for his contributions to the field of algebraic topology.
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##### Nathan Jacobson $($$\text {1910}$ – $\text {1999}$$)$

Polish-American mathematician mainly working in abstract algebra.

Student of Joseph Henry Maclagan Wedderburn.
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##### Anthony Perry Morse $($$\text {1911}$ – $\text {1984}$$)$

American mathematician who worked both in analysis, especially measure theory, and in the foundations of mathematics.
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##### Howard Whitley Eves $($$\text {1911}$ – $\text {2004}$$)$

American mathematician, known for his work in geometry and the history of mathematics.
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##### George Joseph Stigler $($$\text {1911}$ – $\text {1991}$$)$

American economist.
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##### Garrett Birkhoff $($$\text {1911}$ – $\text {1996}$$)$

American mathematician mainly working in mathematical physics and abstract algebra.

Also wrote plenty of text books: his *Lattice Theory* (1940) is much cited.

The son of George David Birkhoff.
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##### John William Wrench, Jr. $($$\text {1911}$ – $\text {2009}$$)$

American mathematician working mainly in numerical analysis.

Pioneer of the use of computers for mathematical calculations

Best known now for his work with Daniel Shanks to calculate $\pi$ to $100 \, 000$ decimal places.
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##### Raphael Mitchel Robinson $($$\text {1911}$ – $\text {1995}$$)$

American mathematician who worked on mathematical logic, set theory, geometry, number theory and combinatorics.

One of the early computer pioneers, he implemented a program for the Lucas-Lehmer Test.

In 1952, determined or confirmed the primality of all the Mersenne numbers up to $M_{2304}$.

In the process, he discovered the Mersenne primes $M_{521}, M_{607}, M_{1279}, M_{2203}$ and $M_{2281}$.
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##### Herbert Samuel Zuckerman $($$\text {1912}$ – $\text {1970}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his work in number theory.
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##### Arthur Norton Milgram $($$\text {1912}$ – $\text {1961}$$)$

American mathematician who worked on functional analysis, combinatorics, differential geometry, topology, partial differential equations, and Galois theory.
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##### Ralph Philip Boas, Jr. $($$\text {1912}$ – $\text {1992}$$)$

American mathematician, teacher, and journal editor, working mainly in the fields of real and complex analysis.

Best known for his humorous applications of mathematical theorems to the practical purpose of hunting lions.
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##### Norman Levinson $($$\text {1912}$ – $\text {1975}$$)$

American mathematician whose major contributions were in the study of Fourier transforms, complex analysis, non-linear differential equations, number theory, and signal processing.

Worked closely with Norbert Wiener in his early career.

In $1974$ he published a paper proving that more than a third of the zeros of the Riemann zeta function lie on the critical line, a result later improved to two fifths by Conrey.
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##### Ralph Hartzler Fox $($$\text {1913}$ – $\text {1973}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his work in knot theory.
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##### Alexander McFarlane Mood $($$\text {1913}$ – $\text {2009}$$)$

American mathematician majoring in physics and statistics.
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##### Charles Stanley Ogilvy $($$\text {1913}$ – $\text {2000}$$)$

American mathematician also well-known for being a sailor.
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##### Ralph Saul Phillips $($$\text {1913}$ – $\text {1998}$$)$

American mathematician known for his contributions to functional analysis, scattering theory, and servomechanisms.

Made major contributions to acoustical scattering theory.
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##### Abraham Charnes $($$\text {1913}$ – $\text {1992}$$)$

American mathematician who worked in the area of operations research.
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##### Daniel John O'Connor $($$\text {1914}$ – $\text {2012}$$)$

American-born philosopher who contributed to the literature of symbolic logic.
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##### Rufus Philip Isaacs $($$\text {1914}$ – $\text {1981}$$)$

American game theorist known for his work on differential games.
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##### William Wager Cooper $($$\text {1914}$ – $\text {2012}$$)$

American operations researcher known for developing the field of linear programming.
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##### Robert Osher Schlaifer $($$\text {1914}$ – $\text {1994}$$)$

American statistician who was one of the pioneers of Bayesian decision theory.
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##### R.H. Bing $($$\text {1914}$ – $\text {1986}$$)$

American mathematician who worked mainly in the areas of geometric topology and continuum theory.
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##### Martin Gardner $($$\text {1914}$ – $\text {2010}$$)$

Colossally influential American mathematician and magician best known for the books he wrote (of which there were many) popularizing mathematics and science.

Author of the *Mathematical Games* column in *Scientific American* between $1956$ and $1981$. This position was taken over by Douglas R. Hofstadter.

Also contributed a series of "puzzle page" articles for *Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine* in the late 1970's to early 1980's.

Also wrote a column called *Notes of a Fringe Watcher* (originally *Notes of a Psi-Watcher*) from 1983 to 2002 for the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry's periodical *Skeptical Inquirer*.
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##### Milton Abramowitz $($$\text {1915}$ – $\text {1958}$$)$

American mathematician who made his mark co-editing the *Handbook of Mathematical Functions* with Irene Ann Stegun.
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##### Henry Wallman $($$\text {1915}$ – $\text {1992}$$)$

American mathematician known for his work in lattice theory, dimension theory, topology, and electronic circuit design.
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##### Herbert Ellis Robbins $($$\text {1915}$ – $\text {2001}$$)$

American mathematician and statistician who did research in topology, measure theory, statistics, and a variety of other fields.
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##### Richard Wesley Hamming $($$\text {1915}$ – $\text {1998}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his work on error-detecting codes.

Thus he started a new field of study within information theory.
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##### Lynn Harold Loomis $($$\text {1915}$ – $\text {1994}$$)$

American mathematician working on analysis.
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##### Nicholas Constantine Metropolis $($$\text {1915}$ – $\text {1999}$$)$

Greek-American physicist who worked on the first nuclear reactors

One of the members of the original staff of fifty scientists working at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.
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##### John Wilder Tukey $($$\text {1915}$ – $\text {2000}$$)$

American mathematician working mainly in the field of statistics.

Made contributions in the fields of nonparametric methods, robustness studies and interpretation of computer graphics.

Developed the use of the box plot, box-and-whisker diagrams and stem-and-leaf displays.

Best known for development of the FFT algorithm.
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##### Robert Henry Sorgenfrey $($$\text {1915}$ – $\text {1996}$$)$

American mathematician who made significant contributions to the field of topology.
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##### Gail Sellers Young Jr. $($$\text {1915}$ – $\text {1999}$$)$

American mathematician best known in the field of education.
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##### Wilfred Kaplan $($$\text {1915}$ – $\text {2007}$$)$

American professor of mathematics whose research focused on dynamical systems, the topology of curve families, complex function theory, and differential equations.
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##### Bryant Tuckerman $($$\text {1915}$ – $\text {2002}$$)$

American mathematician who discovered, on March $4$th, $1971$, the $24$th Mersenne prime: $2^{19 \, 937} - 1$.
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##### Claude Elwood Shannon $($$\text {1916}$ – $\text {2001}$$)$

American mathematician, electrical engineer, and cryptographer known as "the father of information theory".

Noted for having founded information theory with a landmark paper, *A Mathematical Theory of Communication*, published in $1948$.

Produced the first effective design for a chess-playing computer.
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##### Selmer Martin Johnson $($$\text {1916}$ – $\text {1996}$$)$

American mathematician working on number theory and optimisation problems.
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##### Nathan Jacob Fine $($$\text {1916}$ – $\text {1994}$$)$

American mathematician who worked on basic hypergeometric series.

Best known for his lecture notes on the subject which were used as a standard, until they were finally published as a book.

Solved the jeep problem in $1946$.
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##### Robert Dorfman $($$\text {1916}$ – $\text {2002}$$)$

American mathematician who made contributions to the fields of economics, group testing and in the process of coding theory.
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##### John Leroy Kelley $($$\text {1916}$ – $\text {1999}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his work on topology and functional analysis.

Author of the widely-used and -cited textbook *General Topology*, and others.
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##### Charles Frederick Mosteller $($$\text {1916}$ – $\text {2006}$$)$

American statistician who was the founding chairman of Harvard's statistics department.
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##### Ralph Judson Smith $($$\text {1917}$ – $\text {1997}$$)$

American engineer in electronics best known for his books.
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##### Daniel Shanks $($$\text {1917}$ – $\text {1996}$$)$

American mathematician who worked primarily in numerical analysis and number theory.

Best known as the first to compute $\pi$ to $100 \, 000$ decimal places.
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##### Irving Marmer Copi $($$\text {1917}$ – $\text {2002}$$)$

American philosopher and mathematician best known for his university textbooks.
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##### Leonard Jimmie Savage $($$\text {1917}$ – $\text {1971}$$)$

American mathematician who worked on metric and differential geometry, calculus of variations and statistics.
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##### Elizabeth Leonard Scott $($$\text {1917}$ – $\text {1988}$$)$

American mathematician active in the field of group theory, but more well-known for her work in astronomy.

Also involved (with Jerzy Neyman) in the science of rainmaking by cloud seeding.
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##### Roger Conant Lyndon $($$\text {1917}$ – $\text {1988}$$)$

American mathematician known for his work in group theory.
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##### Robert Herman Kasriel $($$\text {1918}$ – $\text {2007}$$)$

American mathematician who specialised in topology.
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##### Marshall Evans Munroe $($$\text {1918}$ – $\text {1997}$$)$

American mathematician working in calculus and analysis.
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##### Wade Edward Philpott $($$\text {1918}$ – $\text {1985}$$)$

American mathematician and puzzle maker.
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##### Florence Dorfman Jacobson $($$\text {1918}$ – $\text {1996}$$)$

American mathematics educator and education consultant.
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##### Richard Phillips Feynman $($$\text {1918}$ – $\text {1988}$$)$

American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model.
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##### Robert Clarke James $($$\text {1918}$ – $\text {2003}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his work in functional analysis.
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##### William G. Chinn $($$\text {1919}$ – $\text {2004}$$)$

American mathematician and educator.
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##### Harold Jacques Dutka $($$\text {1919}$ – $\text {2002}$$)$

American mathematician who was the first to calculate the square root of $2$ to more than one million digits.

Also wrote extensively on the history of mathematics.
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##### Irene Ann Stegun $($$\text {1919}$ – $\text {2008}$$)$

American mathematician who took over the work of co-editing the *Handbook of Mathematical Functions* from Milton Abramowitz, who died in 1958 before the work was complete.
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##### Harry Pollard $($$\text {1919}$ – $\text {1985}$$)$

American mathematician noted for his work in celestial mechanics and the $n$-body problem.
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##### David Harold Blackwell $($$\text {1919}$ – $\text {2010}$$)$

American mathematician who focused mainly on statistics and game theory.
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##### Raymond Merrill Smullyan $($$\text {1919}$ – $\text {2017}$$)$

American mathematician and logician, noted for the accessibility of his books on logic.

He also was a concert pianist and magician.
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##### Paul Trevier Bateman $($$\text {1919}$ – $\text {2012}$$)$

American number theorist, known for formulating the Bateman-Horn conjecture and the New Mersenne conjecture.
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##### Kenneth Levenberg $($$\text {1919}$ – $\text {1973}$$)$

American statistician and original author of the widely used nonlinear least squares fitting algorithm later improved by Donald W. Marquardt, known as the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm.
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##### James Dugundji $($$\text {1919}$ – $\text {1985}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his work in topology.
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##### Donald Kalish $($$\text {1919}$ – $\text {2000}$$)$

American logician, also known as an activist against the Vietnam war.
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##### Julia Hall Bowman Robinson $($$\text {1919}$ – $\text {1985}$$)$

American mathematician best known for her work on decision problems and Hilbert's Tenth Problem.
**show full page**

##### William Kay Smith $($$\text {1920}$ – $\text {2007}$$)$

American mathematician working in education and real analysis.
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##### Edwin Hewitt $($$\text {1920}$ – $\text {1999}$$)$

American mathematician known for his work in abstract harmonic analysis.
**show full page**

##### Robert Earl MacKenzie $($$\text {1920}$ – $\text {2012}$$)$

American mathematician who was attached to the United States navy.
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##### William Schumacher Massey $($$\text {1920}$ – $\text {2017}$$)$

American mathematician known for his work in algebraic topology.
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##### Richard Ernest Bellman $($$\text {1920}$ – $\text {1984}$$)$

American applied mathematician, who introduced dynamic programming in 1953, and important contributions in other fields of mathematics.
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##### John Gilbert Hocking $($$\text {1920}$ – $\text {2011}$$)$

American mathematician working in topology.
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##### Carlton Edward Lemke $($$\text {1920}$ – $\text {2004}$$)$

American mathematician, working in Algebra, Mathematical Programming, Operations Research, and Statistics.

Also contributed to game theory.

Developed the dual simplex method in $1954$, independently from E.M.L. Beale.

With J.T. Howson, Constructed an algorithm in $1964$ for finding Nash equilibria the case of finite two-person games, for which he received the John von Neumann Theory Prize in $1978$.
**show full page**

##### Marion Kirkland Fort, Jr $($$\text {1921}$ – $\text {1964}$$)$

American mathematician specialising in topology.
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##### Murray Seymour Klamkin $($$\text {1921}$ – $\text {2004}$$)$

American mathematician, known as prolific proposer and editor of professionally-challenging mathematical problems.
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##### Thomas Crombie Schelling $($$\text {1921}$ – $\text {2016}$$)$

American economist and professor of foreign policy, national security, nuclear strategy, and arms control.

An authority on game theory.
**show full page**

##### Leon Albert Henkin $($$\text {1921}$ – $\text {2006}$$)$

American logician best known for Henkin's Completeness Proof.
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##### Harry Jeannot Lipkin $($$\text {1921}$ – $\text {2015}$$)$

American-born Israeli theoretical physicist specializing in nuclear physics and elementary particle physics.
**show full page**

##### Verner Emil Hoggatt Jr. $($$\text {1921}$ – $\text {1980}$$)$

American mathematician, known mostly for his work in Fibonacci numbers and number theory.

Founder of the Fibonacci Association.
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##### Oscar Wesler $($$\text {1921}$ – $\text {2013}$$)$

American mathematician who taught mathematics and probability theory courses.
**show full page**

##### Franklin Arno Graybill $($$\text {1921}$ – $\text {2012}$$)$

American mathematician working in statistics.
**show full page**

##### Robert Clay Prim $($$\text {b. 1921}$$)$

American mathematician working mainly in the field of computer science.
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##### William Harold Mills $($$\text {1921}$ – $\text {2007}$$)$

American mathematician best known for Mills' Theorem.
**show full page**

##### Angelo Margaris $($$\text {1921}$ – $\text {2006}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his textbook *First Order Mathematical Logic*.
**show full page**

##### Dura W. Sweeney $($$\text {1922}$ – $\text {1999}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his work in computational mathematics.
**show full page**

##### Patrick Colonel Suppes $($$\text {1922}$ – $\text {2014}$$)$

American philosopher who has written on a variety of subjects, including mathematics.
**show full page**

##### Friend Hans Kierstead, Jr. $($$\text {1922}$ – $\text {2008}$$)$

American mathematician who was the problem editor of the *Journal of Recreational Mathematics*.
**show full page**

##### Henry Andrew Kierstead $($$\text {1922}$ – $\text {1990}$$)$

American mathematician who contributed to the *Journal of Recreational Mathematics*.
**show full page**

##### George Brown Arfken $($$\text {1922}$ – $\text {2020}$$)$

American theoretical physicist and author of several mathematical physics texts.
**show full page**

##### Philip J. Davis $($$\text {1923}$ – $\text {2018}$$)$

American mathematician whose main work is in numerical analysis and approximation theory.
**show full page**

##### Marvin Stern $($$\text {b. 1923}$$)$

American mathematician and engineer of East European ancestry who worked in the aerospace industry.
**show full page**

##### Beauregard Stubblefield $($$\text {1923}$ – $\text {2013}$$)$

American mathematician who is best known for his investiations into odd perfect numbers.
**show full page**

##### William Judson LeVeque $($$\text {1923}$ – $\text {2007}$$)$

American mathematician and administrator who worked primarily in number theory.
**show full page**

##### Tom Mike Apostol $($$\text {1923}$ – $\text {2016}$$)$

American mathematician of Greek origin best known for his textbooks and skill as a teacher.
**show full page**

##### Albert Franklin Kempf $($$\text {1923}$ – $\text {2022}$$)$

American mathematician and educationalist.
**show full page**

##### Cassius Tocqueville Ionescu Tulcea $($$\text {1923}$ – $\text {2021}$$)$

Romanian-American mathematician with an interest in probability theory, statistics and mathematical analysis.
**show full page**

##### Murray Ralph Spiegel $($$\text {1923}$ – $\text {1991}$$)$

American mathematician whose main body of work consists of a series of technical books on applied mathematics.
**show full page**

##### Harvey Cohn $($$\text {1923}$ – $\text {2014}$$)$

American mathematician who majored in number theory.

Pioneered the use of computers for mathematical investigations.
**show full page**

##### Joe B. Roberts $($$\text {b. c. 1924}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his work on recreational mathematics *Lure of the Integers*.
**show full page**

##### Howard Raiffa $($$\text {1924}$ – $\text {2016}$$)$

American mathematician who mainly worked in game theory and economics.
**show full page**

##### Peter Yff $($$\text {1924}$ – $\text {2019}$$)$

American mathematician best known for Yff's Conjecture.
**show full page**

##### Maxwell Alexander Rosenlicht $($$\text {1924}$ – $\text {1999}$$)$

American mathematician known for works in algebraic geometry, algebraic groups, and differential algebra.
**show full page**

##### Isadore Manuel Singer $($$\text {1924}$ – $\text {2021}$$)$

American mathematician working in the boundaries between pure mathematics and theoretical physics.
**show full page**

##### Richard Albert Dean $($$\text {1924}$ – $\text {2022}$$)$

American mathematician and educator working in set theory.
**show full page**

##### John Warner Backus $($$\text {1924}$ – $\text {2007}$$)$

American computer scientist, significantly involved in the development of several computer languages, including ALGOL and FORTRAN.

The metalanguage Backus-Naur Form (BNF) was named after him (who invented it) and Peter Naur (who refined it).
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##### Mary Ellen Rudin $($$\text {1924}$ – $\text {2013}$$)$

American topologist best known for creating counterexamples to conjectures in point-set topology, and especially for being the first person to construct a Dowker Space, disproving a long-standing conjecture.
**show full page**

##### George Finlay Simmons $($$\text {1925}$ – $\text {2019}$$)$

American mathematician who has worked in topology and classical analysis.

Renowned for both his teaching abilities and his first-class text books.
**show full page**

##### John Torrence Tate $($$\text {1925}$ – $\text {2019}$$)$

American mathematician known for his contributions to algebraic number theory, algebraic geometry and arithmetic geometry.
**show full page**

##### Robert Duncan Luce $($$\text {1925}$ – $\text {2012}$$)$

American mathematician known for his work in game theory and economics.
**show full page**

##### George Leitmann $($$\text {b. 1925}$$)$

American control theorist considered one of the leading authorities in optimal control theory and its applications.
**show full page**

##### Harold William Kuhn $($$\text {1925}$ – $\text {2014}$$)$

American mathematician who studied game theory.
**show full page**

##### Kenneth L. Cooke $($$\text {1925}$ – $\text {2007}$$)$

American mathematical biologist known for his contributions to the study of epidemics.
**show full page**

##### Ernest Arthur Michael $($$\text {1925}$ – $\text {2013}$$)$

American mathematician known for his work in the field of general topology, most notably for his pioneering research on set-valued mappings.

Developed the theory of continuous selections.
**show full page**

##### Zdzislaw Alexander Melzak $($$\text {b. 1926}$$)$

American mathematician mainly working in geometry.
**show full page**

##### Bert Mendelson $($$\text {1926}$ – $\text {1988}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his textbook *Introduction to Topology*.
**show full page**

##### Ernest Tilden Parker $($$\text {1926}$ – $\text {1991}$$)$

American mathematician best known for disproving Euler's Conjecture on Orthogonal Latin Squares with Sharadchandra Shankar Shrikhande and Raj Chandra Bose.
**show full page**

##### Richard Allan Silverman $($$\text {b. 1926}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his translations of (mainly) Russian mathematical textbooks into English.
**show full page**

##### Peter Hagis, Jr. $($$\text {1926}$ – $\text {2018}$$)$

American mathematician working in number theory.

Best known for his work establishing the lower bound of odd perfect numbers.
**show full page**

##### Donald John Lewis $($$\text {1926}$ – $\text {2015}$$)$

American mathematician specializing in number theory.
**show full page**

##### Martin Shubik $($$\text {1926}$ – $\text {2018}$$)$

American economist, who is Professor Emeritus of Mathematical Institutional Economics at Yale University.
**show full page**

##### Robert Lawson Vaught $($$\text {1926}$ – $\text {2002}$$)$

American mathematician who mainly worked in mathematical logic, and was one of the founders of model theory.
**show full page**

##### Donald Watson Blackett $($$\text {1926}$ – $\text {2004}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his work in game theory and topology
**show full page**

##### Hilary Whitehall Putnam $($$\text {1926}$ – $\text {2016}$$)$

American mathematician and philosopher, who has written significantly on various subjects, such as the philosophy of logic and language acquisition.
**show full page**

##### Richard Carl Jeffrey $($$\text {1926}$ – $\text {2002}$$)$

American mathematician who mainly worked in logic and probability theory.
**show full page**

##### Herman Rubin $($$\text {1926}$ – $\text {2018}$$)$

American mathematician specialising in statistics.
**show full page**

##### Wilson Miles Zaring $($$\text {1926}$ – $\text {2016}$$)$

American mathematician working in axiomatic set theory.
**show full page**

##### Thomas C. Bartee $($$\text {1926}$ – $\text {2018}$$)$

American pioneer in digital computing.
**show full page**

##### Nesmith Cornett Ankeny $($$\text {1927}$ – $\text {1993}$$)$

American mathematician specialising in number theory.
**show full page**

##### Wilbur Eugene Deskins $($$\text {1927}$ – $\text {2012}$$)$

American mathematician working in abstract algebra.
**show full page**

##### John Lewis Selfridge $($$\text {1927}$ – $\text {2010}$$)$

American mathematician who contributed to the fields of analytic number theory, computational number theory and combinatorics.

Proved in $1962$ that $78 \ 557$ is a Sierpiński number of the second kind.

Conjectured (with Wacław Franciszek Sierpiński) that it is also the smallest. This still has not been proven (see Sierpiński Problem).
**show full page**

##### Richard Scott Pierce $($$\text {1927}$ – $\text {1992}$$)$

American mathematician who mainly worked in abstract algebra.
**show full page**

##### Joseph Steven Madachy $($$\text {1927}$ – $\text {2014}$$)$

American research chemist, technical editor and recreational mathematician.
**show full page**

##### Robert Laurence Mills $($$\text {1927}$ – $\text {1999}$$)$

American physicist, specializing in quantum field theory, the theory of alloys, and many-body theory.

Formulated Yang-Mills theory with Yang Chen-Ning.
**show full page**

##### Benjamin Franklin Logan $($$\text {1927}$ – $\text {2015}$$)$

American electrical engineer and bluegrass music fiddler.

Corresponded with Donald E. Knuth, with whom he exchanged insights.
**show full page**

##### Seth L. Warner $($$\text {1927}$ – $\text {2017}$$)$

American mathematician who worked in topology and abstract algebra.
**show full page**

##### Richard C. DiPrima $($$\text {1927}$ – $\text {1984}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his textbooks.
**show full page**

##### Robert Gardner Bartle $($$\text {1927}$ – $\text {2003}$$)$

American mathematician specializing in real analysis.

Best known for his text books.
**show full page**

##### Elvin James Lee $($$\text {1927}$ – $\text {2019}$$)$

American amateur mathematician active in the recreational mathematics community.
**show full page**

##### Reuben Hersh $($$\text {1927}$ – $\text {2020}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his writings on the philosophy of mathematics.
**show full page**

##### Richard H. Crowell $($$\text {c. 1928}$ – $\text {2006}$$)$

American mathematician working in topology, calculus and knot theory.
**show full page**

##### Joseph Bernard Kruskal $($$\text {1928}$ – $\text {2010}$$)$

American mathematician working in the fields of statistics, computer science and graph theory, among others.
**show full page**

##### Wendell Helms Fleming $($$\text {b. 1928}$$)$

American mathematician specializing in geometrical analysis and stochastic differential equations.
**show full page**

##### Ray Alden Kunze $($$\text {1928}$ – $\text {2014}$$)$

American mathematician whose research concerned the representation theory of groups and noncommutative harmonic analysis.
**show full page**

##### Martin David Davis $($$\text {b. 1928}$$)$

American mathematician working mainly in the field of mathematical logic.
**show full page**

##### Abner Shimony $($$\text {1928}$ – $\text {2015}$$)$

American physicist and philosopher of science specializing in quantum theory.
**show full page**

##### Harold Seymour Shapiro $($$\text {1928}$ – $\text {2021}$$)$

American mathematician best known for inventing the Shapiro polynomials and for pioneering work on quadrature domains.
**show full page**

##### Thomas Andrew Lehrer $($$\text {b. 1928}$$)$

Mathematics lecturer at the University of California, Santa Cruz.

Far better known for his brief but successful musical career.
**show full page**

##### John Forbes Nash $($$\text {1928}$ – $\text {2015}$$)$

American mathematician who made fundamental contributions to game theory, differential geometry, and the study of partial differential equations
**show full page**

##### Louis Auslander $($$\text {1928}$ – $\text {1997}$$)$

Prolific American mathematician who worked in many fields, including Finsler geometry, geometry of solvmanifolds and nilmanifolds, locally affine spaces, many aspects of harmonic analysis, representation theory of solvable Lie groups, and multidimensional Fourier transforms and the design of signal sets for communications and radar.
**show full page**

##### Errett Albert Bishop $($$\text {1928}$ – $\text {1983}$$)$

American mathematician known for his work on expanding the scope of constructive analysis.
**show full page**

##### Harvey Alan Dubner $($$\text {1928}$ – $\text {2019}$$)$

American engineer and mathematician specializing in the mathematics of casino games and finding large primes.

Invented the point-count method for gaining an advantage in blackjack.
**show full page**

##### James Harold McKay $($$\text {b. 1928}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his work in group theory.
**show full page**

##### Henry Wadsworth Gould $($$\text {b. 1928}$$)$

American mathematician whose research has been in combinatorial analysis, number theory, special functions of mathematical physics, and the history of mathematics and astronomy.
**show full page**

##### Halsey Lawrence Royden $($$\text {1928}$ – $\text {1993}$$)$

American mathematician specialising in complex analysis, Riemann surfaces and differential geometry.
**show full page**

##### Donald Gordon Higman $($$\text {1928}$ – $\text {2006}$$)$

American mathematician noted for his discovery of the Higman-Sims group, with Charles Coffin Sims.

His work contributed towards the discovery of several of the sporadic simple groups.
**show full page**

##### James Mitchell Henderson $($$\text {b. 1929}$$)$

American economist.
**show full page**

##### Donald W. Marquardt $($$\text {1929}$ – $\text {1997}$$)$

American statistician, the rediscoverer of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for nonlinear least squares fitting.
**show full page**

##### Eugene James Putzer $($$\text {1929}$ – $\text {2006}$$)$

American mathematician and physicist best known for the Putzer Algorithm.
**show full page**

##### Frank Ephraim Harris $($$\text {b. 1929}$$)$

American physics professor and fellow of the American Physical Society.
**show full page**

##### Morton David Davis $($$\text {b. 1930}$$)$

American mathematician working in the field of game theory.
**show full page**

##### Martin Schechter $($$\text {b. 1930}$$)$

American mathematician whose work concerns mathematical analysis (specifically partial differential equations and functional analysis, and their applications to mathematical physics)
**show full page**

##### Jacob Theodore Schwartz $($$\text {1930}$ – $\text {2009}$$)$

American mathematician, computer scientist, and professor of computer science.

Designer of the SETL programming language.

Started the NYU Ultracomputer project.
**show full page**

##### Stephen Smale $($$\text {b. 1930}$$)$

American mathematician working in topology, dynamical systems and mathematical economics.
**show full page**

##### Donald J. Newman $($$\text {1930}$ – $\text {2007}$$)$

American mathematician active in the fields of complex analysis, number theory and approximation theory.

Best known for his elementary proof of the Prime Number Theorem.
**show full page**

##### James Raymond Munkres $($$\text {b. 1930}$$)$

American mathematician and author of *Topology*, one of the most popular undergraduate topology textbooks.
**show full page**

##### Richard Merett Montague $($$\text {1930}$ – $\text {1971}$$)$

American mathematician and logician.

Proved that ZFC must contain infintely many axioms.
**show full page**

##### John Rolfe Isbell $($$\text {1930}$ – $\text {2005}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his work in topology and category theory.

Also published under the pseudonyms John Rainwater, M.G. Stanley and H.C. Enos.
**show full page**

##### William Joseph Pervin $($$\text {b. 1930}$$)$

American mathematician best known as a computer science educator.
**show full page**

##### Norman Woodason Johnson $($$\text {1930}$ – $\text {2017}$$)$

American mathematician best known for enumerating all $92$ convex non-uniform polyhedra with regular faces.
**show full page**

##### John David Brillhart $($$\text {b. 1930}$$)$

American mathematician known for his work in integer factorization, including the development of the continued fraction factorization method.

Has been a principal participant in the Cunningham project.
**show full page**

##### Kenneth Myron Hoffman $($$\text {1930}$ – $\text {2008}$$)$

American mathematician whose primary area of research specialization was functional analysis.
**show full page**

##### William Edward Boyce $($$\text {1930}$ – $\text {2019}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his textbooks.
**show full page**

### $1931$ and onwards

##### Seymour Saul Lipschutz $($$\text {b. 1931}$$)$

American mathematician who is an author of technical books on pure mathematics and probability, including a collection of Schaum's Outlines.
**show full page**

##### Arthur Beiser $($$\text {b. 1931}$$)$

American physicist best known for his physics textbooks.
**show full page**

##### John Willard Milnor $($$\text {b. 1931}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his work in differential topology.
**show full page**

##### Elliott Mendelson $($$\text {1931}$ – $\text {2020}$$)$

American logician who taught mathematics at the college level for more than 30 years, and is the author of books on logic, philosophy of mathematics, calculus, game theory and mathematical analysis.
**show full page**

##### Morris Herman DeGroot $($$\text {1931}$ – $\text {1989}$$)$

American statistician best known for his textbooks on statistics.
**show full page**

##### Rudolph Michael Najar $($$\text {b. 1931}$$)$

American mathematician with a research interest in elementary number theory.
**show full page**

##### Herbert Saul Wilf $($$\text {1931}$ – $\text {2012}$$)$

American mathematician who specializes in combinatorics and graph theory.

He has made available certain of his works for free download.
**show full page**

##### Edwin Floriman Taylor $($$\text {b. 1931}$$)$

American professor of physics whose primary research interests are in the field of physics education.
**show full page**

##### Daniel Leonid Slotnick $($$\text {1931}$ – $\text {1985}$$)$

American mathematician and computer architect who pioneered the concept of parallelism in computer architectures.

Chief architect of the Illiac IV supercomputer.
**show full page**

##### John Winsor Pratt $($$\text {b. 1931}$$)$

American mathematician who has made contributions to research in risk aversion theory.
**show full page**

##### Karl Robert Stromberg $($$\text {1931}$ – $\text {1994}$$)$

American mathematician known for his textbook writing.
**show full page**

##### Basil Gordon $($$\text {1931}$ – $\text {2012}$$)$

American mathematician specializing in number theory and combinatorics.

Worked with Wernher von Braun on the US's contribution to the Space Race.
**show full page**

##### Harry Lewis Nelson $($$\text {b. 1932}$$)$

American mathematician and computer programmer.

Member of the team that won the World Computer Chess Championship in $1983$ and $1986$.

Co-discoverer with David Slowinski of the $27$th Mersenne prime $2^{44 \, 497} − 1$ in $1979$.

Editor of the *Journal of Recreational Mathematics* for five years.
**show full page**

##### David Abram Antin $($$\text {1932}$ – $\text {2016}$$)$

American poet, critic and performance artist, who also translated various scientific and mathematical works.
**show full page**

##### Solomon Wolf Golomb $($$\text {1932}$ – $\text {2016}$$)$

American mathematician, engineer and professor of electrical engineering at the University of Southern California, best known for his works on mathematical games.

Invented Cheskers in $1948$ and coined the name.

Fully described polyominoes and pentominoes in $1953$

Specialized in problems of combinatorial analysis, number theory, coding theory and communications.

His game of Pentomino inspired Tetris.
**show full page**

##### Joseph F. Stephany $($$\text {1932}$ – $\text {2011}$$)$

American research scientist, mathematician, editor of *Physical Review*, and amateur chess player.
**show full page**

##### Kenneth Ira Appel $($$\text {1932}$ – $\text {2013}$$)$

American mathematician who in 1976, along with Wolfgang Haken, proved the Four Color Theorem with the help of a computer.
**show full page**

##### Dana Stewart Scott $($$\text {b. 1932}$$)$

American computer scientist, logician and philosopher.
**show full page**

##### John David Thomas $($$\text {1933}$ – $\text {2021}$$)$

American mathematician working in toplogy.

Best known for the topological constructs Thomas's plank and Thomas's corkscrew.
**show full page**

##### Nils John Nilsson $($$\text {1933}$ – $\text {2019}$$)$

American mathematician who was one of the founders in the field of artificial intelligence.
**show full page**

##### Richard Allen Askey $($$\text {1933}$ – $\text {2019}$$)$

American mathematician, known for his expertise in the area of special functions.
**show full page**

##### Morris William Hirsch $($$\text {b. 1933}$$)$

American mathematician working on manifolds.
**show full page**

##### Stephen Hoel Schanuel $($$\text {1933}$ – $\text {2014}$$)$

American mathematician working in the fields of abstract algebra and category theory, number theory, and measure theory.

Known for Schanuel's Conjecture.
**show full page**

##### Carole Baker Lacampagne $($$\text {1933}$ – $\text {2021}$$)$

American mathematician known for her work in mathematics education and gender equality.
**show full page**

##### James Ward Brown $($$\text {b. 1934}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his textbooks.
**show full page**

##### John Jay Greever, III $($$\text {b. 1934}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his work in topology.
**show full page**

##### Paul Joseph Cohen $($$\text {1934}$ – $\text {2007}$$)$

American mathematician working in logic and set theory.

Best known for his work on the Continuum Hypothesis.
**show full page**

##### William Warren Bartley III $($$\text {1934}$ – $\text {1990}$$)$

American philosopher specializing in 20th century philosophy, language and logic, and the Vienna Circle.
**show full page**

##### William Gilbert Strang $($$\text {b. 1934}$$)$

American mathematician with contributions to finite element theory, the calculus of variations, wavelet analysis and linear algebra.
**show full page**

##### Robert B. Ash $($$\text {1935}$ – $\text {2015}$$)$

American mathematician working in various areas, including Information Theory and Discrete Mathematics.
**show full page**

##### Allan Hersh Clark $($$\text {b. 1935}$$)$

American professor of mathematics.
**show full page**

##### Merrilee H. Salmon $($$\text {b. 1935}$$)$

American philosopher, archaeologist and logician.
**show full page**

##### James Gordon Simmonds $($$\text {1935}$ – $\text {2015}$$)$

American mathematician working in applied mathematics and computer science.
**show full page**

##### Ronald Lewis Graham $($$\text {1935}$ – $\text {2020}$$)$

American mathematician famous for his work in the field of Ramsey theory.

Notable for introducing Graham's number, the largest number ever yet encountered in mathematics.

Popularized the concept of the Erdős number.

Husband of Fan Chung Graham, friend and colleague of Paul Erdős.
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##### Marvin Jay Greenberg $($$\text {1935}$ – $\text {2017}$$)$

American mathematician known for his books on non-Euclidean geometry and algebraic topology.
**show full page**

##### Robert Works Fuller $($$\text {b. 1936}$$)$

American physicist, author and social reformer.
**show full page**

##### Norman Laurence Gilbreath $($$\text {b. 1936}$$)$

American magician and author known for originating the Gilbreath shuffle.

Also known for Gilbreath's Conjecture concerning prime numbers.
**show full page**

##### Howard E. Sturgis $($$\text {1936}$ – $\text {1990}$$)$

American mathematician and computer scientist.

Co-designer (with John Cedric Shepherdson) of the Unlimited Register Machine, a refinement of the Turing machine.
**show full page**

##### Martin Charles Tangora $($$\text {b. 1936}$$)$

American mathematician working in topology.
**show full page**

##### Peter John Freyd $($$\text {b. 1936}$$)$

American mathematician known for work in category theory.
**show full page**

##### John Alden Thorpe $($$\text {b. 1936}$$)$

American mathematician known for contributions to the field of differential geometry.
**show full page**

##### Thomas William Hungerford $($$\text {1936}$ – $\text {2014}$$)$

American mathematician working in algebra and mathematics education.
**show full page**

##### Herbert Bruce Enderton $($$\text {1936}$ – $\text {2010}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his textbooks in mathematical logic and set theory.

Also a popular educational contributor to various usenet groups.
**show full page**

##### Robert W Floyd $($$\text {1936}$ – $\text {2001}$$)$

American computer scientist, who was active in discrete mathematics.

Noted for his work on parsing.

Introduced the concept of error diffusion for rendering images.

Pioneered the field of program verification using logical assertions. This contributed to what later became Hoare logic.
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##### Gary Theodore Chartrand $($$\text {b. 1936}$$)$

American mathematician who specializes in graph theory.

He is known for his textbooks on introductory graph theory and for the concept of a highly irregular graph.
**show full page**

##### Peter Clingerman Fishburn $($$\text {b. 1936}$$)$

American statistician known as a pioneer in the field of decision-making processes.
**show full page**

##### James West Friedman $($$\text {1936}$ – $\text {2016}$$)$

American economist noted for his work in game theory.
**show full page**

##### James Edward Mann $($$\text {b. 1936}$$)$

American mathematician working in geophysics.

Held in high esteem as a mathematics educator.
**show full page**

##### Shlomo Zvi Sternberg $($$\text {b. 1936}$$)$

American mathematician known for his work in geometry, particularly symplectic geometry and Lie theory.
**show full page**

##### Howard Jerome Keisler $($$\text {b. 1936}$$)$

American mathematician whose research has included model theory and non-standard analysis.
**show full page**

##### Peter Bruce Andrews $($$\text {b. 1937}$$)$

American mathematician best known for creating the TPS automated theorem prover.
**show full page**

##### Charles Henry Edwards $($$\text {b. 1937}$$)$

American mathematician working in analysis.
**show full page**

##### Walter Alexander Strauss $($$\text {b. 1937}$$)$

American applied mathematician specializing in partial differential equations and nonlinear waves.
**show full page**

##### Underwood Dudley $($$\text {b. 1937}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his popular writing.
**show full page**

##### Stanley P. Gudder $($$\text {b. 1937}$$)$

American writer on mathematics.
**show full page**

##### James Burton Ax $($$\text {1937}$ – $\text {2006}$$)$

American mathematician who proved several results in algebra and number theory by using model theory.
**show full page**

##### William Gordon Hunter $($$\text {1937}$ – $\text {1986}$$)$

American statistician best known for being one of the co-authors of the classic book *Statistics for Experimenters*.
**show full page**

##### Charles Coffin Sims $($$\text {1937}$ – $\text {2017}$$)$

American mathematician active in the field of group theory.

With Donald Gordon Higman, discovered the Higman-Sims group.

Developed software leading up to the discovery of the Lyons group (also known as Lyons-Sims group) and O'Nan group (also known as O'Nan-Sims group).
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##### Robert Butler Wilson $($$\text {b. 1937}$$)$

American economist known for his contributions to management science and business economics.
**show full page**

##### David Bryant Mumford $($$\text {b. 1937}$$)$

American mathematician known for his work in algebraic geometry and then for research into vision and pattern theory.
**show full page**

##### William Robert Alford $($$\text {1937}$ – $\text {2003}$$)$

American mathematician who worked in the field of number theory.
**show full page**

##### Hayward Rose Alker $($$\text {1937}$ – $\text {2007}$$)$

American mathematician and political scientist who specialized in research methods, core international relations theory, international politics, and security.
**show full page**

##### Alexander Hurwitz $($$\text {b. 1937}$$)$

American mathematician who found the $19$th and $20$th Mersenne primes $2^{4253} - 1$ and $2^{4423} - 1$ in $1961$.
**show full page**

##### Barry Charles Mazur $($$\text {b. 1937}$$)$

American mathematician who has worked in geometric topology and arithmetic topology.
**show full page**

##### Robert Berger $($$\text {b. 1938}$$)$

American mathematician known for devising the first aperiodic tiling, using a set of $20 \ 426$ distinct tile shapes.
**show full page**

##### William Warren Fairchild $($$\text {b. 1938}$$)$

American mathematician with an interest in probability theory, statistics and mathematical analysis.
**show full page**

##### Donald Ervin Knuth $($$\text {b. 1938}$$)$

Pronounced **K-Nooth**.

Hugely influential American computer scientist famous for his multi-volume *The Art of Computer Programming*, still famously a work in progress.

The "father of analysis of algorithms".

Pioneered research and design of the representation of mathematics via computer.^{[1]} Author of *Computers and Typesetting*, another multi-volume work.
**show full page**

##### Ian Mueller $($$\text {1938}$ – $\text {2010}$$)$

American scholar of ancient Greek philosophy of science and the reception of Plato and Aristotle in late antiquity.
**show full page**

##### Michael C. Gemignani $($$\text {b. 1938}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his writing on computers and their history.
**show full page**

##### Robin Cope Hartshorne $($$\text {b. 1938}$$)$

American mathematician who is known for his work in algebraic geometry.
**show full page**

##### J. Arthur Seebach $($$\text {1938}$ – $\text {1996}$$)$

American mathematician best known for the groundbreaking *Counterexamples in Topology* which he co-authored with Lynn Arthur Steen, "... a counterexample to the view, widespread at the time, that undergraduates could neither do nor even contribute to research in mathematics."^{[2]}.

An early advocate for introducing computers into the educational curriculum.
**show full page**

##### Robert William Gilmer $($$\text {1938}$ – $\text {2021}$$)$

American mathematician working mainly in abstract algebra.
**show full page**

##### Frederick William Byron $($$\text {b. 1938}$$)$

American physicist and educator.
**show full page**

##### Richard Mansfield Dudley $($$\text {b. 1938}$$)$

American mathematician whose main fields of study are real analysis and probability theory.
**show full page**

##### George Eyre Andrews $($$\text {b. 1938}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his work in number theory.

Famous for discovering Srinivasa Aiyangar Ramanujan's Lost Notebook in 1976.
**show full page**

##### Lorraine Lois Foster $($$\text {b. 1938}$$)$

American mathematician working in number theory and the theory of mathematical symmetry.

First woman to receive a Ph.D. in mathematics from California Institute of Technology.
**show full page**

##### Ronald Alter $($$\text {b. 1939}$$)$

American mathematician and computer scientist working in number theory.
**show full page**

##### Theodore William Gamelin $($$\text {b. 1939}$$)$

American mathematician who majors in analysis.
**show full page**

##### David Breyer Singmaster $($$\text {b. 1939}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his work in the field of recreational mathematics, in particular Rubik's cube.
**show full page**

##### Bruce Carl Berndt $($$\text {b. 1939}$$)$

American mathematician working in the field of analytic number theory.

Best known for his work explicating the discoveries of Srinivasa Ramanujan.
**show full page**

##### Richard Anthony Brualdi $($$\text {b. 1939}$$)$

American mathematician specialising in matrix theory, combinatorics and graph theory.
**show full page**

##### John Bligh Conway $($$\text {b. 1939}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his comprehensive books on functional and complex analysis.
**show full page**

##### John Edward Hopcroft $($$\text {b. 1939}$$)$

American theoretical computer scientist best known for his textbooks on theory of computation and data structures are regarded as standards in their fields.
**show full page**

##### George Gasper $($$\text {b. 1939}$$)$

American mathematician working on special functions, especially orthogonal polynomials and basic hypergeometric series.

Introduced the Askey-Gasper Inequality.
**show full page**

##### Stephen Arthur Cook $($$\text {b. 1939}$$)$

American mathematician and computer scientist who has made considerable progress in the field of complexity theory.
**show full page**

##### John Marshall Ash $($$\text {b. 1940}$$)$

American mathematician publishing mostly in the field of harmonic analysis.
**show full page**

##### Charles Chapman Pugh $($$\text {b. 1940}$$)$

American mathematician who specializes in dynamic systems.
**show full page**

##### Alexander G. Ramm $($$\text {b. 1940}$$)$

Russian-born American mathematician who specializes in differential and integral equations, operator theory, ill-posed and inverse problems, scattering theory, functional analysis, spectral theory, numerical analysis, theoretical electrical engineering, signal estimation, and tomography.
**show full page**

##### Michael David Spivak $($$\text {b. 1940}$$)$

American mathematician specializing in differential geometry.

Also noted for his textbooks.
**show full page**

##### Daniel Gray Quillen $($$\text {1940}$ – $\text {2011}$$)$

American mathematician mainly working in the field of algebraic topology.
**show full page**

##### George Stephen Boolos $($$\text {1940}$ – $\text {1996}$$)$

American philosopher who also worked in the field of mathematical logic.
**show full page**

##### Elwyn Ralph Berlekamp $($$\text {1940}$ – $\text {2019}$$)$

American mathematician and computer scientist famous for his contributions towards game theory.

Also the innovator of several computer algorithms.
**show full page**

##### David Anthony Klarner $($$\text {1940}$ – $\text {1999}$$)$

American mathematician, author, and educator.

Known for his work in combinatorial enumeration, polyominoes and box-packing.
**show full page**

##### Donald A. Martin $($$\text {b. 1940}$$)$

American set theorist and philosopher of mathematics.
**show full page**

##### Robert H. Cowen $($$\text {c. 1941}$$)$

American mathematician working in set theory.
**show full page**

##### Lynn Arthur Steen $($$\text {1941}$ – $\text {2015}$$)$

American mathematician best known for the groundbreaking *Counterexamples in Topology* which he co-authored with J. Arthur Seebach, Jr..
**show full page**

##### Michael Frederick Armstrong $($$\text {1941}$ – $\text {2020}$$)$

American mathematician and teacher of computer science best known for being the eponym of Armstrong numbers.
**show full page**

##### Calvin C. Clawson $($$\text {b. 1941}$$)$

American mathematician, educator and historian of mathematics.
**show full page**

##### Joel William Robbin $($$\text {b. 1941}$$)$

American mathematician specialising in mathematical logic and matrix algebra.
**show full page**

##### Roland Edwin Larson $($$\text {b. 1941}$$)$

American professor of mathematics, best known for the widely-used books (covering all levels from from pre-school to college) written by him, often in collaboration.
**show full page**

##### Kenneth G. Lucey $($$\text {b. 1942}$$)$

American philosopher who has written in the field of logic and relation theory.
**show full page**

##### Michael Charles Reed $($$\text {b. 1942}$$)$

American mathematician known for his contributions to mathematical physics and mathematical biology.
**show full page**

##### John Timothy Anderson $($$\text {1942}$ – $\text {2000}$$)$

American mathematician known for his textbooks.
**show full page**

##### Joseph Anthony Gallian $($$\text {b. 1942}$$)$

American mathematician who has been awarded for the quality of his teaching.
**show full page**

##### Melvin Fitting $($$\text {b. 1942}$$)$

American mathematician specialising in logic.
**show full page**

##### Robert James McEliece $($$\text {1942}$ – $\text {2019}$$)$

American mathematician and engineering professor best known for his work in information theory.
**show full page**

##### Kenneth Jon Barwise $($$\text {1942}$ – $\text {2000}$$)$

American mathematician, philosopher and logician who proposed some fundamental revisions to the way that logic is understood and used.
**show full page**

##### David Peter Robbins $($$\text {1942}$ – $\text {2003}$$)$

American mathematician most famous for introducing alternating sign matrices.
**show full page**

##### Karen Keskulla Uhlenbeck $($$\text {b. 1942}$$)$

American mathematician who is one of the founders of modern geometric analysis.
**show full page**

##### Alfred S. Posamentier $($$\text {b. 1942}$$)$

American educator, writer and commentator on American mathematics and science education.
**show full page**

##### Jeffrey David Ullman $($$\text {b. 1942}$$)$

American computer scientist famous for his textbooks on compilers and theory of computation.
**show full page**

##### Steven Roger Givant $($$\text {b. 1943}$$)$

American mathematician working in abstract geometry.
**show full page**

##### Robert Everist Greene $($$\text {b. 1943}$$)$

American mathematician whose main area of work is in differential geometry.
**show full page**

##### Carolyn Fruit Neptune $($$\text {c. 1943}$ – $\text {2014}$$)$

American mathematician best known as a teacher.
**show full page**

##### David Lem Colton $($$\text {b. 1943}$$)$

American mathematician specialising in industrial and applied mathematics.
**show full page**

##### Ralph William Gosper, Jr. $($$\text {b. 1943}$$)$

American mathematician and pioneering computer programmer.

Considered by some to be one of the founders of the hacker community.
**show full page**

##### Alan Curtiss Tucker $($$\text {b. 1943}$$)$

American mathematics professor who has published on combinatorics and linear algebra.
**show full page**

##### George Mark Bergman $($$\text {b. 1943}$$)$

American mathematician whose primary research area is algebra, in particular associative rings, universal algebra, category theory and the construction of counterexamples.

Mathematical logic is an additional research area.
**show full page**

##### Herbert Kenneth Kunen $($$\text {b. 1943}$$)$

American mathematician working in set theory.
**show full page**

##### Nicholas Michael Katz $($$\text {b. 1943}$$)$

American mathematician working in the fields of algebraic geometry, particularly on p-adic methods, monodromy and moduli problems, and number theory.
**show full page**

##### George Barry Purdy $($$\text {1944}$ – $\text {2017}$$)$

American mathematician and computer scientist who specialized in cryptography, combinatorial geometry and number theory.
**show full page**

##### Vaughan Ronald Pratt $($$\text {b. 1944}$$)$

American mathematician specialising in computer science.
**show full page**

##### Andy Roy Magid $($$\text {b. 1944}$$)$

American mathematician concerned with commutative algebra, Galois theory of rings, algebraic geometry, algebraic groups, representations of groups and differential Galois theory.
**show full page**

##### Bailey Whitfield Diffie $($$\text {b. 1944}$$)$

American mathematician and cryptographer.

One of the pioneers of public-key cryptography

Inventor with Martin Edward Hellman of the trapdoor function.
**show full page**

##### Hugh Lowell Montgomery $($$\text {b. 1944}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his work in analytic number theory and mathematical analysis.
**show full page**

##### Melvyn Bernard Nathanson $($$\text {b. 1944}$$)$

American mathematician specialising in number theory, particularly additive and combinatorial.
**show full page**

##### Carl Bernard Pomerance $($$\text {b. 1944}$$)$

American mathematician specialising in number theory.
**show full page**

##### Mitchell Jay Feigenbaum $($$\text {b. 1944}$$)$

American mathematical physicist whose pioneering studies in chaos theory led to the discovery of the Feigenbaum constants.
**show full page**

##### Joseph Warren Dauben $($$\text {b. 1944}$$)$

American professor of history who has written extensively on the history of mathematics.
**show full page**

##### Edward M. Reingold $($$\text {b. 1945}$$)$

American computer scientist active in the fields of algorithms, data structures, graph drawing, and calendrical calculations.
**show full page**

##### Persi Warren Diaconis $($$\text {b. 1945}$$)$

American mathematician and former professional magician of Greek descent, best known for tackling mathematical problems involving randomness and randomization, such as coin flipping and shuffling playing cards.
**show full page**

##### George Daniel Parker $($$\text {1945}$ – $\text {2015}$$)$

American mathematician best known as a teacher (for which he won awards) and writer of mathematics text books.
**show full page**

##### Douglas Richard Hofstadter $($$\text {b. 1945}$$)$

American mathematician and philosopher most noted for the books he has written.

In particular, famous for being the author of *Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid*.

Between 1981 and 1983, he took over from Martin Gardner the task of writing the *Mathematical Games* column in Scientific American, which he renamed to *Metamagical Themas*.
**show full page**

##### Samuel Standfield Wagstaff Jr. $($$\text {b. 1945}$$)$

American mathematician and computer scientist, whose research interests are in the areas of cryptography, parallel computation, and analysis of algorithms, especially number theoretic algorithms.
**show full page**

##### Martin Golubitsky $($$\text {b. 1945}$$)$

American mathematician specialising in mathematical biosciences.
**show full page**

##### Alan Enoch Gelfand $($$\text {b. 1945}$$)$

American statistician whose research includes substantial contributions to the fields of Bayesian statistics, spatial statistics and hierarchical modeling.
**show full page**

##### John Allen Paulos $($$\text {b. 1945}$$)$

American professor of mathematics who is famous for writing and speaking about the importance of mathematical literacy.
**show full page**

##### Martin Edward Hellman $($$\text {b. 1945}$$)$

American mathematician and cryptographer.

One of the pioneers of public-key cryptography

Inventor with Bailey Whitfield Diffie and Ralph C. Merkle of the technique of public key cryptography.
**show full page**

##### Robert Louis Griess, Jr. $($$\text {b. 1945}$$)$

American mathematician working on finite simple groups and vertex algebras.

Constructed the Fischer-Griess Monster using the Griess algebra.
**show full page**

##### Leonard Max Adleman $($$\text {b. 1945}$$)$

American cryptographer and software engineer, best known for his involvement in the creation of the RSA algorithm.

Successfully used DNA as a computation technique.

Supposed to have coined the term **virus** in the context of computer programs.
**show full page**

##### Bruce H. Edwards $($$\text {b. 1946}$$)$

American mathematician and educator.
**show full page**

##### Derek A. Zave $($$\text {1946}$ – $\text {1987}$$)$

American computer scientist who has done research into power series with harmonic numbers.
**show full page**

##### Rudolf von Bitter Rucker $($$\text {b. 1946}$$)$

An American mathematician, computer scientist, science fiction author and philosopher.

Best known (in the field of mathematics) for his work *Infinity and the Mind*.
**show full page**

##### Barry Martin Simon $($$\text {b. 1946}$$)$

American mathematical physicist, known for his work in spectral theory, functional analysis, and nonrelativistic quantum mechanics (particularly Schrödinger operators).
**show full page**

##### William Paul Thurston $($$\text {1946}$ – $\text {2012}$$)$

American mathematician who specialised in low-dimensional topology.

Won the Fields Medal in 1982 for his work on $3$-manifolds.
**show full page**

##### Stanley Rabinowitz $($$\text {b. 1947}$$)$

American mathematician working in number theory.
**show full page**

##### Ronald Linn Rivest $($$\text {b. 1947}$$)$

American cryptographer and software engineer, best known for his involvement in the creation of the RSA algorithm.

Also well-known for being one of the contributors to 1990: Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson and Ronald L. Rivest: *Introduction to Algorithms*.
**show full page**

##### Gerald Budge Folland $($$\text {b. 1947}$$)$

American mathematician whose areas of interest are harmonic analysis (on both Euclidean space and Lie groups), differential equations, and mathematical physics.
**show full page**

##### Peter Lawrence Montgomery $($$\text {b. 1947}$$)$

American mathematician whose specialty is cryptography.
**show full page**

##### William Wade Dunham $($$\text {b. 1947}$$)$

American mathematician specialising in topology.

Later became interested in the history of mathematics, particularly that concerning Leonhard Euler.
**show full page**

##### Richard E. Crandall $($$\text {1947}$ – $\text {2012}$$)$

American physicist and computer scientist who made contributions to computational number theory.
**show full page**

##### Michael R. Genesereth $($$\text {b. 1948}$$)$

American professor of computer science.
**show full page**

##### Robert Gilmore $($$\text {b. 1948}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his work in group theory, nonlinear dynamics, catastrophe theory, Lie groups and quantum mechanics.
**show full page**

##### Richard Schroeppel $($$\text {b. 1948}$$)$

American mathematician whose research has included magic squares, elliptic curves and cryptography.
**show full page**

##### Gregory Charles Reinsel $($$\text {1948}$ – $\text {2004}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his work on time series analysis, forecasting and control.
**show full page**

##### Paul Robert Milgrom $($$\text {b. 1948}$$)$

American economist who is also an expert in game theory, specifically auction theory and pricing strategies.

Co-creator of the No-Trade Theorem with Nancy Stokey.
**show full page**

##### John Patton Burgess $($$\text {b. 1948}$$)$

American philosopher interested in logic and the philosophy of mathematics.
**show full page**

##### David Harold Bailey $($$\text {b. 1948}$$)$

American mathematician and computer scientist best known as the co-creator (with Peter Benjamin Borwein and Simon Plouffe) of the BBP Algorithm.
**show full page**

##### Neal Koblitz $($$\text {b. 1948}$$)$

American mathematician known for elliptic and hyperelliptic curve cryptography.
**show full page**

##### Lee Vernon Stiff $($$\text {b. 1949}$$)$

American mathematician working mainly in the field of mathematics education research.

Author and co-author of several mathematics textbooks.
**show full page**

##### Charles Louis Fefferman $($$\text {b. 1949}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his contributions to mathematical analysis.
**show full page**

##### Lawrence Craig Evans $($$\text {b. 1949}$$)$

American mathematician whose research is in the field of nonlinear partial differential equations, primarily elliptic equations.
**show full page**

##### Sheldon Jay Axler $($$\text {b. 1949}$$)$

American mathematician who has made contributions to mathematics education, publishing several mathematics textbooks.
**show full page**

##### Eric Schechter $($$\text {b. 1950}$$)$

American mathematician with interests in analysis and mathematical logic.
**show full page**

##### John Marshall Lee $($$\text {b. 1950}$$)$

American mathematician specializing in differential geometry.
**show full page**

##### David Marc Kreps $($$\text {b. 1950}$$)$

American game theorist and economist, known for his analysis of dynamic choice models and non-cooperative game theory, particularly the idea of sequential equilibrium.
**show full page**

##### Charles Alexander Weibel $($$\text {b. 1950}$$)$

American mathematician working on algebraic K-theory, algebraic geometry and homological algebra.
**show full page**

##### Eric Stark Maskin $($$\text {b. 1950}$$)$

American economist who introduced the discipline of mechanism design theory.
**show full page**

##### Lawrence Clinton Washington $($$\text {b. 1951}$$)$

American mathematician specializing in number theory.
**show full page**

##### George C. Casella $($$\text {1951}$ – $\text {2012}$$)$

American statistician best known for his contributions to Monte Carlo methods, model selection and genomic analysis.
**show full page**

##### Steven Howard Weintraub $($$\text {b. 1951}$$)$

American mathematician specializing in algebraic geometry, algebra und differential topology.
**show full page**

##### Steven George Krantz $($$\text {b. 1951}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his writing and teaching.
**show full page**

##### Roger Bruce Myerson $($$\text {b. 1951}$$)$

American economist and political scientist.

Also active in the fields of game theory and mechanism design.
**show full page**

##### Michael Hartley Freedman $($$\text {b. 1951}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his work on the $4$-dimensional Generalized Poincaré Conjecture.
**show full page**

##### Roger Lee Berger $($$\text {b. 1951}$$)$

American statistician best known as the co-author of *Statistical Inference* with George C. Casella.
**show full page**

##### Edward Witten $($$\text {b. 1951}$$)$

American theoretical physicist and professor of mathematical physics.

Researcher in string theory, quantum gravity, supersymmetric quantum field theories, and other areas of mathematical physics.
**show full page**

##### Robert Scott Rumely $($$\text {b. 1952}$$)$

American professor of mathematics specializing in number theory and arithmetic geometry.

He is one of the inventors of the Adleman-Pomerance-Rumely Primality Test.
**show full page**

##### Neal Lamar Carothers $($$\text {1952}$ – $\text {2018}$$)$

American researcher and professor of mathematics.
**show full page**

##### Charles Eric Leiserson $($$\text {b. 1953}$$)$

American computer scientist, specializing in the theory of parallel computing and distributed computing.

Best known as the co-author of *Introduction to Algorithms*, along with Thomas H. Cormen, Ronald L. Rivest and Cliff Stein.
**show full page**

##### Glenn H. Stevens $($$\text {b. 1953}$$)$

American mathematician and educator, whose research specialties are number theory, automorphic forms, and arithmetic geometry.
**show full page**

##### David Steven Dummit $($$\text {b. 1954}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his text books.
**show full page**

##### Oren Patashnik $($$\text {b. 1954}$$)$

American computer scientist best known for co-authoring *Concrete Mathematics: A Foundation for Computer Science* with Ronald L. Graham and Donald E. Knuth.
**show full page**

##### David Charles Ullrich $($$\text {b. 1954}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his text books.
**show full page**

##### James Gleick $($$\text {b. 1954}$$)$

American author and journalist known for his books about the history of science.
**show full page**

##### Michael Keith $($$\text {b. 1955}$$)$

American mathematician and software engineer, best known in the mathematical community for his work in the field of recreational mathematics.

Also known as the author of works of constrained writing.
**show full page**

##### David Knudsen Levine $($$\text {b. 1955}$$)$

American economist working in game theory.
**show full page**

##### Dennis Elliot Shasha $($$\text {b. 1955}$$)$

American professor of computer science who has worked:

- with biologists on pattern discovery for microarrays, combinatorial design, network inference, and protein docking
- with physicists, musicians, and professionals in finance on algorithms for time series.
- on database applications in untrusted environments

Also interested in database tuning as well as tree and graph matching.

Interested in puzzles and their solution techniques.
**show full page**

##### Joseph Hillel Silverman $($$\text {b. 1955}$$)$

American mathematician whose work has been in number theory, arithmetic geometry, arithmetic dynamics and cryptography.
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##### David Allen Bayer $($$\text {b. 1955}$$)$

American mathematician known for his contributions in algebra and symbolic computation and for his consulting work in the movie industry.
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##### Thomas H. Cormen $($$\text {b. 1956}$$)$

American mathematician and computer scientist, best known for being the co-author of *Introduction to Algorithms*, along with Charles E. Leiserson, Ronald L. Rivest and Cliff Stein.
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##### Paul Hoffman $($$\text {b. 1956}$$)$

American author, science educator, food entrepreneur and occasional writer on mathematics.

Also a puzzlemaster under the pseudonym Dr. Crypton.
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##### Colin Conrad Adams $($$\text {b. 1956}$$)$

American mathematician, humorist and prolific writer active in knot theory and topology.

Active in combating the too-common psychological condition of math anxiety.
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##### Drew Fudenberg $($$\text {b. 1957}$$)$

American mathematician working on game theory, including equilibrium theory, learning in games, and evolutionary game theory.
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##### Daniel Zwillinger $($$\text {b. 1957}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his work editing the *CRC Standard Mathematical Tables and Formulae, 33rd ed.*
.
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##### Clifford Alan Pickover $($$\text {b. 1957}$$)$

American mathematician whose main research area is fractals.

Also a prolific popular writer on several topics.
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##### Jeffrey Outlaw Shallit $($$\text {b. 1957}$$)$

American computer scientist, number theorist, and a noted critic of intelligent design.
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##### George F. Woltman $($$\text {b. 1957}$$)$

American mathematician and computer scientist who is the founder of the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search (GIMPS).
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##### Mark Steven Manasse $($$\text {b. 1958}$$)$

American computer scientist and mathematician who works in the field of algorithmic number theory

Part of the team which factorised the $9$th Fermat number.
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##### Thomas Callister Hales $($$\text {b. 1958}$$)$

American mathematician working in the areas of representation theory, discrete geometry, and formal verification.

Known for his work on the Langlands program and contribution to the proof of the fundamental lemma over the group $\map {\mathrm {Sp} } 4$

Settled the Kepler's Conjecture on the density of sphere packings and the honeycomb conjecture.
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##### Robert S. Gibbons $($$\text {b. 1958}$$)$

American economist, currently the Sloan Distinguished Professor of Management at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
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##### Steven M. Awodey $($$\text {b. 1959}$$)$

American mathematician and philosopher of mathematics.

Active researcher in the areas of category theory and logic.

Has also written on the philosophy of mathematics.

One of the originators of the field of homotopy type theory.
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##### Mark W. Bowron $($$\text {b. 1959}$$)$

American mathematician working in number theory.
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##### Steven R. Finch $($$\text {b. 1959}$$)$

American mathematician working in applied mathematics, with special attention to weather forecasting.
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##### Shafi Goldwasser $($$\text {b. 1959}$$)$

Israeli-American computer scientist.
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##### Dale A. Miller $($$\text {1959}$$)$

American research scientist working on computational logic.

Known for the so-called Millin series, which he discovered in high school.
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##### Ariel T. Glenn $($$\text {b. 1960}$$)$

American mathematician and software engineer best noted for finding the Mersenne prime $M_{21 \, 701}$, alongside Landon Curt Noll, while still at high school.
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##### Landon Curt Noll $($$\text {b. 1960}$$)$

American mathematician best noted for finding the two Mersenne primes $M_{21\ 701}$ and $M_{23\ 209}$ while still at high school (the first together with Laura Ariel Nickel, now Ariel T. Glenn).
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##### Kenneth Keeler $($$\text {b. 1961}$$)$

American mathematician who passes the time between theorems writing episodes of *Futurama*.

The Futurama episode The Prisoner of Benda features an application of what we on $\mathsf{Pr} \infty \mathsf{fWiki}$ are going to call *the Futurama Theorem*.
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##### Neil James Calkin $($$\text {b. 1961}$$)$

American-born British mathematician whose interests are in combinatorial and probabilistic methods, mainly as applied to number theory.
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##### John Carlos Baez $($$\text {b. 1961}$$)$

American mathematician and physicist known for his work in spin foams in loop quantum gravity.

Also known for his writings on octonions and higher-order Clifford algebras.
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##### Clifford Seth Stein $($$\text {b. 1965}$$)$

American computer scientist and professor of industrial engineering and operations research.

Well-known as one of the contributors to later editions of *Introduction to Algorithms*, along with Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson and Ronald L. Rivest .
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##### Noam David Elkies $($$\text {b. 1966}$$)$

American mathematician and chess master.

With Arthur Oliver Lonsdale Atkin, extended Schoof's Algorithm to create the Schoof-Elkies-Atkin Algorithm.

Found the first known counterexample to Euler's Quartic Conjecture.
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##### Hjalmar Ekdal $($$\text {established c. 1967}$$)$

**Hjalmar Ekdal** is the name chosen by the group of $3$ professors and $5$ students at St Olaf College, Minnesota for the pseudonym of the author of the yet-to-be-written *Counterexamples in Topology*.

In due course, the book was published as by Lynn Arthur Steen and J. Arthur Seebach, Jr., $2$ of the professors whose efforts made the book possible.
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##### Francis Edward Su $($$\text {c. 1969}$$)$

American mathematician whose research area is combinatorics.

Particularly known for his work on fair division.
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##### Eric Wolfgang Weisstein $($$\text {b. 1969}$$)$

American mathematician best known for creating and maintaining MathWorld.
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##### Nik Weaver $($$\text {b. 1969}$$)$

American mathematician working mainly in set theory and measure theory.
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##### Jordan Stuart Ellenberg $($$\text {b. 1971}$$)$

American mathematician working mainly within arithmetic geometry.
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##### Danica Mae McKellar $($$\text {b. 1975}$$)$

American mathematician better known as an actor.

Also known for her books aimed specifically at middle-school and high-school girls to increase their confidence in mathematics.
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##### Nathaniel Read Silver $($$\text {b. 1978}$$)$

American statistician and writer who analyzes baseball and elections.

Famous for successfully calling the outcomes in 49 of the 50 states in the 2008 U.S. Presidential election.
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##### Victoria Hart $($$\text {b. 1988}$$)$

American mathematician best known for the videos she has published on YouTube under the name **Vi Hart**.
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## References

- ↑ It is impossible accurately to assess the impact of $\TeX$ on the ability to communicate mathematics via computer. This website would not have been possible without it.
- ↑ In Memorium: J. Arthur Seebach, Jr.: Lynn Arthur Steen.