# Mathematician:Mathematicians/Sorted By Birth/1851 - 1900 CE

For more comprehensive information on the lives and works of mathematicians through the ages, see the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, created by John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson.

*The army of those who have made at least one definite contribution to mathematics as we know it soon becomes a mob as we look back over history; 6,000 or 8,000 names press forward for some word from us to preserve them from oblivion, and once the bolder leaders have been recognised it becomes largely a matter of arbitrary, illogical legislation to judge who of the clamouring multitude shall be permitted to survive and who be condemned to be forgotten.'*- -- Eric Temple Bell:
*Men of Mathematics*, 1937, Victor Gollancz, London

- -- Eric Temple Bell:

## Contents

- 1 $1851$ – $1860$
- 2 $1861$ – $1870$
- 3 $1871$ – $1880$
- 3.1 1871
- 3.2 1872
- 3.3 1873
- 3.4 1874
- 3.5 1875
- 3.6 1876
- 3.7 1877
- 3.8 1878
- 3.9 1879
- 3.9.1 Edwin Raymond Smith (1879 – ?)
- 3.9.2 Robert Daniel Carmichael (1879 – 1967)
- 3.9.3 Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955)
- 3.9.4 Guido Fubini (1879 – 1943)
- 3.9.5 Hans Hahn (1879 – 1934)
- 3.9.6 Philip Edward Bertrand Jourdain (1879 – 1919)
- 3.9.7 John Wesley Young (1879 – 1932)
- 3.9.8 Duncan MacLaren Young Sommerville (1879 – 1934)

- 3.10 1880

- 4 $1881$ – $1890$
- 4.1 1881
- 4.2 1882
- 4.3 1883
- 4.4 1884
- 4.5 1885
- 4.6 1886
- 4.7 1887
- 4.8 1888
- 4.8.1 Richard Courant (1888 – 1972)
- 4.8.2 Louis Joel Mordell (1888 – 1972)
- 4.8.3 Sydney Chapman (1888 – 1970)
- 4.8.4 Zygmunt Janiszewski (1888 – 1920)
- 4.8.5 William Richard Maximilian Hugo Threlfall (1888 – 1949)
- 4.8.6 Stefan Mazurkiewicz (1888 – 1945)
- 4.8.7 James Waddell Alexander II (1888 – 1971)
- 4.8.8 Paul Isaac Bernays (1888 – 1977)

- 4.9 1889
- 4.10 1890

- 5 $1891$ – $1900$
- 5.1 1891
- 5.2 1892
- 5.3 1893
- 5.4 1894
- 5.5 1895
- 5.6 1896
- 5.7 1897
- 5.8 1898
- 5.9 1899
- 5.10 1900

## $1851$ – $1860$

### 1851

#### June

##### Silvanus Phillips Thompson (1851 – 1916)

English professor of physics, known for his work as an electrical engineer and as an author.

Author of the $1910$ text *Calculus Made Easy*, which teaches the fundamentals of infinitesimal calculus, and is still in print.
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### 1852

##### François Proth (1852 – 1879)

French farmer who was also a self-taught mathematician.

Known for his analysis of Proth numbers and Proth primes.

Formulated Gilbreath's Conjecture on successive differences of primes, $80$ years before Norman L. Gilbreath, but his proof was incorrect.
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#### January

##### Giovanni Frattini (1852 – 1927)

Italian mathematician noted for his contributions to group theory.
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##### Clarence Abiathar Waldo (1852 – 1926)

American mathematician, author and educator today most famous for the role he played in the Indiana Pi Bill affair.
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#### April

##### Carl Louis Ferdinand von Lindemann (1852 – 1939)

German mathematician who made his mark by publishing a proof in $1882$ that $\pi$ is transcendental.
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#### July

##### William Burnside (1852 – 1927)

English mathematician who was one of the earliest researchers in group theory.
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### 1853

#### April

##### Arthur Moritz Schönflies (1853 – 1928)

German mathematician known for his contributions to the application of group theory to crystallography, and for work in topology.
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#### December

##### Evgraf Stepanovich Fedorov (1853 – 1919)

Russian mathematician, crystallographer and mineralogist.

Best known in the mathematics world for enumerating the $3$-dimensional space groups, now known as the Fedorov groups.
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### 1854

#### April

##### Hertha Marks Ayrton (1854 – 1923)

British engineer, mathematician, physicist, and inventor.

Awarded the Hughes Medal by the Royal Society for her work on electric arcs and ripples in sand and water.
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##### Jules Henri Poincaré (1854 – 1912)

Better known as **Henri Poincaré**.

French mathematician and philosopher.

Often referred to as "The last universalist", as he was the last one able to master the whole of mathematics at the time. (Since then the field has grown too large.)

Introduced the field of special relativity.
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#### May

##### Hans Carl Friedrich von Mangoldt (1854 – 1925)

German mathematician who contributed towards the solution of the Prime Number Theorem.
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#### June

##### Robert Hjalmar Mellin (1854 – 1933)

Finnish mathematician and who majored in functional theory.

Best known for the Mellin transform.
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#### November

##### Johan Ludvig Heiberg (1854 – 1928)

Danish historian best known for discovering previously unknown texts of Archimedes.

Also published an edition of Euclid's *The Elements*.
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### 1855

#### July

##### George Arthur Plimpton (1855 – 1936)

American publisher and philanthropist, whose contribution to mathematics was his collection of rare ancient mathematical works which he donated to the Nicholas Murray Butler Library of Columbia University.
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#### August

##### Alfredo Capelli (1855 – 1910)

Italian mathematician best known for Capelli's Identity.

Also pioneered the notation $x^{\overline k}$ and $x^{\underline k}$ for rising factorial and falling factorial respectively.
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#### November

##### John Edward Aloysius Steggall (1855 – 1935)

British mathematician and educator whose research interests were in the theory of numbers and in kinematical geometry.
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### 1856

#### June

##### Andrey Andreyevich Markov (1856 – 1922)

Russian mathematician best known for his work on stochastic processes.
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##### Paul Friedrich Wolfskehl (1856 – 1906)

German physician with an interest in mathematics.

He bequeathed $100\,000$ marks (equivalent to $£ 1\,000\,000$ pounds in $1997$ money) to the first person to prove Fermat's Last Theorem.

By the time the prize was finally awarded to Andrew John Wiles on $27$ June $1997$, the monetary value of the award had dwindled to $£30\,000$.
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#### July

##### Giacinto Morera (1856 – 1909)

Italian mathematician and engineer best remembered for his work in complex analysis and the theory of linear elasticity.
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##### Charles Émile Picard (1856 – 1941)

French mathematician who made significant advances in the fields of:

Son-in-law of Charles Hermite.
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#### August

##### Carl David Tolmé Runge (1856 – 1927)

German mathematician, physicist, and spectroscopist.

Best known as the co-developer (with Martin Wilhelm Kutta) of the Runge-Kutta Method in the field of numerical analysis.

Also known for his work on the Zeeman effect.

His work paved the way for the Thue-Siegel-Roth Theorem in the field of Diophantine equations.
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#### November

##### Charles Planck (1856 – 1935)

English mathematician best known for his discovery of an order $9$ perfect magic cube, accomplished in $1905$.
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#### December

##### Walther von Dyck (1856 – 1934)

**Walther Franz Anton von Dyck** was a German mathematician who was one of the pioneers of group theory.

He was originally known as **Walther Dyck**: the **von** was added later when he was ennobled.

The first to define a group in the abstract sense. The first to study a group by generators.

A student of Felix Klein.
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##### Thomas Joannes Stieltjes (1856 – 1894)

**Thomas Joannes Stieltjes** (whose name is also rendered **Thomas Jan Stieltjes**) was a Dutch mathematician whose main fields of study included continued fractions and measure theory.
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### 1857

#### March

##### Karl Pearson (1857 – 1936)

Influential English mathematician and biometrician.

Credited with establishing the discipline of mathematical statistics.

Contributed significantly to the field of biometrics, meteorology, theories of social Darwinism and eugenics.
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#### April

##### Henry Ernest Dudeney (1857 – 1930)

English author and mathematician who specialised in logic puzzles and mathematical games.

Considered one of Britain's foremost creators of mathematical puzzles.
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#### May

##### Oskar Bolza (1857 – 1942)

German mathematician best known for his research in the calculus of variations, particularly influenced by Karl Weierstrass's $1879$ lectures on the subject.
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#### June

##### Aleksandr Mikhailovich Lyapunov (1857 – 1918)

In Russian: **Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Ляпуно́в**.

Russian mathematician, mechanician and physicist, known for his development of the stability theory of a dynamical system, as well as for his many contributions to mathematical physics and probability theory.
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### 1858

#### May

##### Édouard Jean-Baptiste Goursat (1858 – 1936)

French mathematician best known for his work in complex analysis.
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#### June

##### Andrew Russell Forsyth (1858 – 1942)

Scottish mathematician best known as the author of treatises.
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#### August

##### Giuseppe Peano (1858 – 1932)

Italian mathematician who contributed significantly to the founding of the fields of mathematical logic and set theory.

Invented many of the symbols used today in these fields.

Worked on the axiomatization of mathematics, and contributed greatly towards the method of mathematical induction.
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### 1859

#### February

##### Florian Cajori (1859 – 1930)

Swiss-born American mathematician who specialized in (and in fact pioneered) the field of mathematics history.
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#### March

##### Ernesto Cesàro (1859 – 1906)

Italian mathematician who worked mainly in the fields of differential geometry and number theory.
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##### Samuil Osipovich Shatunovsky (1859 – 1929)

Ukrainian mathematician who focused on several topics in mathematical analysis and algebra, such as group theory, number theory and geometry.
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##### Adolf Hurwitz (1859 – 1919)

German mathematician who was an early master of the theory of Riemann surfaces.
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#### May

##### Johan Ludwig William Valdemar Jensen (1859 – 1925)

Danish mathematician and engineer best known for Jensen's Inequality and Jensen's Formula.
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#### August

##### Georg Alexander Pick (1859 – 1942)

Austrian mathematician best known for Pick's Formula for determining the area of lattice polygons.
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#### December

##### Otto Ludwig Hölder (1859 – 1937)

German mathematician most famous for his work in analysis (in particular Fourier series) and group theory.
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### 1860

#### January

##### David Eugene Smith (1860 – 1944)

American mathematician and educator best known for his translations of classics.
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#### May

##### Jan Cornelis Kluyver (1860 – 1932)

Dutch mathematician who made important contributions to analysis, number theory and geometry.

Professor at Leiden University between 1892 and 1930.
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#### June

##### Alicia Boole Stott (1860 – 1940)

Irish-English mathematician who made substantial contributions to the field of four-dimensional geometry, which she famously grasped at a very early age.

Coined the word polytope.
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## $1861$ – $1870$

### 1861

#### February

##### Alfred North Whitehead (1861 – 1947)

English mathematician who also studied philosophy.

Best known for his co-authorship with Bertrand Arthur William Russell of *Principia Mathematica*, published from 1910.
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##### George Ballard Mathews (1861 – 1922)

English mathematician who taught alongside Andrew Gray, with whom he coauthored a textbook on Bessel functions.

Also noted for his textbooks on number theory and projective geometry.
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#### August

##### Ivar Otto Bendixson (1861 – 1935)

Swedish mathematician who worked mainly in the fields of set theory, analysis and differential equations.
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##### Cesare Burali-Forti (1861 – 1931)

Italian mathematician best known for discovering what is now known as the Burali-Forti Paradox.

Disbelieved in the Theory of Relativity, and even went so far as to write a book attempting to refute it.
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#### September

##### Percy John Heawood (1861 – 1955)

English mathematician who devoted his working life to the Four Color Theorem.

In $1890$, exposed a flaw in Alfred Bray Kempe's proof, that had been considered as valid for $11$ years.

He never actually proved the theorem, which remained open until it was finally proved in $1976$ by Kenneth Ira Appel and Wolfgang Haken.
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##### Frank Nelson Cole (1861 – 1926)

American mathematician famous for finding the factors of the Mersenne number $M_{67}$. (It had already been demonstrated by Édouard Lucas in $1876$ that it is not prime, but till this time the factors had not been found.) Cole's demonstration of this in $1903$ took the form of a now famous lecture *On The Factorization of Large Numbers* in which he performed the necessary arithmetic on a blackboard, delivering the only totally wordless lecture in recorded history.

The American Mathematical Society's *Cole Prize* was named in his honor.
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#### October

##### Thomas Little Heath (1861 – 1940)

English Civil servant who is best known for his scholarly translations of the Greek classics of mathematics into English.
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#### December

##### Friedrich Engel (1861 – 1941)

German mathematician specialising in partial differential equations.
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##### Kurt Wilhelm Sebastian Hensel (1861 – 1941)

German mathematician best known for his introduction of $p$-adic numbers.
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### 1862

#### January

##### Eliakim Hastings Moore (1862 – 1932)

American mathematician working in abstract algebra and the foundations of geometry, among others.
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##### David Hilbert (1862 – 1943)

One of the most influential mathematicians in the late $19$th and early $20$th century.

Most famous for the Hilbert 23, a list he delivered in $1900$ of $23$ problems which were at the time still unsolved.
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#### March

##### Leonard James Rogers (1862 – 1933)

English mathematician famous for the Rogers-Ramanujan Identities and for proving a special case of Hölder's inequality.
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#### May

##### Gino Benedetto Loria (1862 – 1954)

Italian mathematician and historian of mathematics.
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### 1863

#### July

##### Herbert William Richmond (1863 – 1948)

English mathematician who did considerable work in the field of algebraic geometry.

Most famous now for his construction of the regular $17$-gon.

Worked on ballistics during World War I, the results of which influenced continuing work on the subject in World War II.
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#### September

##### Lars Edvard Phragmén (1863 – 1937)

Contributed towards the field of complex function theory.

Also contributed towards the field of insurance mathematics.
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#### October

##### William Henry Young (1863 – 1942)

English mathematician, who worked on measure theory, Fourier series, differential calculus amongst other fields.

Made brilliant and long-lasting contributions to the study of functions of several complex variables.
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#### December

##### Paul Painlevé (1863 – 1933)

French mathematician who worked on differential equations and the emerging new physics.

Later in life became Prime Minister of France.
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### 1864

#### March

##### William Fogg Osgood (1864 – 1943)

American mathematician working in complex analysis, in particular conformal mapping and uniformization of analytic functions, and calculus of variations.

Wrote on the theory of the gyroscope.
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##### Alwin Reinhold Korselt (1864 – 1947)

German mathematician best known for Korselt's Theorem which provides a definition for Carmichael numbers.

Contributed an early result in relational algebra.
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#### June

##### Hermann Minkowski (1864 – 1909)

Created and developed the field of geometry of numbers.
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### 1865

#### April

##### Charles Proteus Steinmetz (1865 – 1923)

Prussian-born American mathematician and electrical engineer and professor at Union College.

Fostered development of alternating current that enabled expansion of electric power industry in United States.

Formulated mathematical theories for engineers.

Explained the phenomenon of hysteresis.
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#### October

##### Willem Abraham Wythoff (1865 – 1939)

Dutch mathematician known for his work in in combinatorial game theory and number theory.

Also known for his work in geometry, in particular for the Wythoff construction of uniform tilings and uniform polyhedra.
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#### December

##### Jacques Salomon Hadamard (1865 – 1963)

French mathematician who contributed in the fields of:

Most famous for proving the Prime Number Theorem in 1896, independently of Charles de la Vallée Poussin.
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### 1866

#### June

##### James P. Pierpont (1866 – 1938)

American mathematician working first in Galois theory, and then in real and complex analysis.
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#### August

##### Charles de la Vallée Poussin (1866 – 1962)

Full name: **Charles-Jean Étienne Gustave Nicolas, Baron de la Vallée Poussin**.

Belgian mathematician famous for proving the Prime Number Theorem, independently of Jacques Salomon Hadamard in $1896$.
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#### November

##### George Godfrey Berry (1866 – 1930)

Presumably English scholar, about whom little is known, who gave his name to the Berry Paradox.

His understanding of logic and the concepts underpinning mathematical logic was a strong influence on Bertrand Russell.
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##### Georg Wilhelm Scheffers (1866 – 1945)

German mathematician whose specialty was differential geometry.

Also a writer of several well-received textbooks.
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### 1867

#### March

##### Karl Zsigmondy (1867 – 1925)

Austrian mathematician of Hungarian ethnicity, best known for Zsigmondy's Theorem, discovered in $1882$.
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#### April

##### James Cullen (1867 – 1933)

Irish Jesuit priest who also developed some results in number theory.
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#### July

##### Derrick Norman Lehmer (1867 – 1938)

American mathematician active mainly in the field of number theory.

The father of Derrick Henry ("Dick") Lehmer.
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#### August

##### Charles Albert Noble (1867 – 1962)

American mathematician who worked mainly on differential equations.
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##### Maxime Bôcher (1867 – 1918)

American mathematician who worked on differential equations, series, and algebra.
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#### November

##### Martin Wilhelm Kutta (1867 – 1944)

German mathematician best known for co-developing (with Carl David Tolmé Runge) of the Runge-Kutta Method in the field of numerical analysis.

Also known for the Zhukovsky-Kutta Aerofoil.
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### 1868

#### March

##### Grace Emily Chisholm Young (1868 – 1944)

English mathematician who became the first woman to receive a doctorate in Germany, in any field.
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#### November

##### Felix Hausdorff (1868 – 1942)

German mathematician fundamental in the development of modern topology.

Also active in set theory, measure theory and function theory.

The first to formulate what is now known as the Generalized Continuum Hypothesis.
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#### December

##### Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld (1868 – 1951)

German theoretical physicist who pioneered developments in atomic and quantum physics.
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##### Emanuel Lasker (1868 – 1941)

German philosopher and mathematician who was also one of the greatest chess-players of all time.

Inventor of the game now known as Lasca.
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### 1869

#### April

##### Élie Joseph Cartan (1869 – 1951)

Influential French mathematician who did fundamental work in the theory of Lie groups and their geometric applications.

Made significant contributions to mathematical physics, differential geometry, and group theory.
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#### December

##### Dmitri Fyodorovich Egorov (1869 – 1931)

**Dmitri Fyodorovich Egorov** (Russian: **Дмитрий Фёдорович Егоров**) was a Russian mathematician is noted for his contributions to differential geometry and analysis.

His religious views caused him to fall foul of the Soviet regime and he died as a result of a hunger strike he embarked upon while in prison for being a "religious sectarian".
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### 1870

##### Ernst Leonard Lindelöf (1870 – 1946)

Finnish topologist who also worked on differential equations and the gamma function.

Wrote a series of highly-regarded textbooks and published extensively on the history of Finnish mathematics.
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##### Henri Claudius Rosaris Dulac (1870 – 1955)

French mathematician majoring in differential equations and real analysis.
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## $1871$ – $1880$

### 1871

#### January

##### Gino Fano (1871 – 1952)

Italian mathematician best known as the founder of the finite geometry.
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##### Félix Édouard Justin Émile Borel (1871 – 1956)

More usually referred to as **Émile Borel**.

French mathematician working mainly in measure theory and its applications to probability theory.
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#### May

##### Vladimir Andreyevich Markov (1871 – 1897)

Russian mathematician noted for the solution of the Markov Brothers' Inequality, with his elder brother Andrey Andreyevich Markov.

Died of tuberculosis at the tragically young age of 25.
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#### July

##### Ernst Friedrich Ferdinand Zermelo (1871 – 1953)

German mathematician best known for his work on the foundations of mathematics.

Laid the groundwork (later to be enhanced by Abraham Fraenkel) for what are now known as the Zermelo-Fraenkel axioms of axiomatic set theory.
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### 1872

#### May

##### Bertrand Arthur William Russell (1872 – 1970)

**Bertrand Russell**, also known as the **3rd Earl Russell**, was a British philosopher, mathematician and logician.

Best known for his co-authorship with Alfred North Whitehead of *Principia Mathematica*, published from 1910.
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#### August

##### Horace Scudder Uhler (1872 – 1956)

American physicist who worked on geometrical optics, spectroscopy and X-rays.

As a mathematician, demonstrated several Mersenne numbers to be composite without finding one single Mersenne prime.

Also calculated the values of many irrational numbers such as logarithms, reciprocals and roots to a colosssal number of decimal places.

Published the value of $\log_{10} \left({9^{9^9} }\right)$ to $250$ decimal places in $1947$.
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### 1873

#### September

##### Constantin Carathéodory (1873 – 1950)

Otherwise known as **Constantine Karatheodori** (in Greek: **Κωνσταντίνος Καραθεοδωρή**).

Greek mathematician who contributed to the theory of functions of a real variable, the calculus of variations and measure theory.

Also worked on rationalisation of the theory of thermodynamics.
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##### Julian Lowell Coolidge (1873 – 1954)

American mathematician and a professor and chairman of the Harvard University Mathematics Department.
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#### October

##### Edmund Taylor Whittaker (1873 – 1956)

English mathematician who contributed widely to applied mathematics, mathematical physics and the theory of special functions.

Principally interested in numerical analysis.

Worked on celestial mechanics and the history of physics.
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#### December

##### Heinrich Dörrie (1873 – 1955)

German teacher of mathematics and author of several specialist books.
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### 1874

##### René-Louis Baire (1874 – 1932)

French mathematician who worked mainly on the theory of continuity and irrational numbers.

Most famous for the Baire Category Theorem.
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##### Leonard Eugene Dickson (1874 – 1954)

One of the first American mathematicians to work in abstract algebra.

Also remembered for his history of number theory.
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##### Edward Vermilye Huntington (1874 – 1952)

American mathematician who worked on the foundations of mathematics.
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##### Friedrich Moritz Hartogs (1874 – 1943)

**Friedrich Hartogs** (known to his associates as **Fritz**) was a German mathematician who made advances in set theory and complex analysis.

Killed himself as a result of the treatment he had received from the government of his country at the time.
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### 1875

#### January

##### Issai Schur (1875 – 1941)

Jewish mathematician of Russian descent working mainly in group theory and combinatorics.

Worked most of his life in Germany, then emigrated to Palestine in 1939 as a result of political persecution, and died a pauper.
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#### February

##### Thomas John I'Anson Bromwich (1875 – 1929)

English all-rounder mathematician who committed suicide from mental illness supposedly brought on by overwork.
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#### March

##### Frank Lauren Hitchcock (1875 – 1957)

American mathematician and physicist known for his formulation of the transportation problem in $1941$.
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#### May

##### Beppo Levi (1875 – 1961)

Italian mathematician best known for his work on algebraic curves and Lebesgue integration.
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#### June

##### Henri Léon Lebesgue (1875 – 1941)

French mathematician famous mainly for his work on the theory of integral calculus.
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#### July

##### Ernst Sigismund Fischer (1875 – 1954)

Austrian mathematician who worked in the field of analysis.

Worked with Emmy Noether.
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#### August

##### Giuseppe Vitali (1875 – 1932)

Italian mathematician who worked in several branches of analysis.

Best known for the Vitali set: a subset of the real numbers which is not Lebesgue measurable.
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#### December

##### Francesco Paolo Cantelli (1875 – 1966)

Italian mathematician best known for his work in probability theory, and for the Borel-Cantelli Lemma.
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### 1876

#### January

##### Erhard Schmidt (1876 – 1959)

Baltic German mathematician whose work significantly influenced the direction of mathematics in the twentieth century.
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##### Robert John Tainsh Bell (1876 – 1963)

Scottish mathematician noted for his work in solid geometry.
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#### May

##### Gilbert Ames Bliss (1876 – 1951)

American mathematician, known for his work on the calculus of variations.
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#### June

##### William Sealy Gosset (1876 – 1937)

English statistician, who published under the pseudonym **Student**, most famous for Student's $t$-distribution.

Being an employee of Guinness, who had concerns about trade secrets being disclosed within academic papers, Gosset was unable to publish under his real name. Gosset was later allowed to publish under the pen name Student.

Had a close friendship with Karl Pearson and Ronald Aylmer Fisher.
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#### September

##### Earle Raymond Hedrick (1876 – 1943)

American mathematician who adopted the position of vice-president of the University of California.
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### 1877

#### February

##### Godfrey Harold Hardy (1877 – 1947)

English mathematician noted for his work in number theory and analysis.

Also famous for his discovery and mentorship of Srīnivāsa Aiyangār Rāmānujan.

Non-mathematicians remember him mainly for his book *A Mathematician's Apology*.
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##### Edmund Georg Hermann Landau (1877 – 1938)

German mathematician who worked in the fields of number theory and complex analysis.
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#### May

##### James Colquhoun Irvine (1877 – 1952)

Scottish organic chemist.

Principal and Vice-Chancellor of the University of St Andrews from $1921$ until his death.

Worked on the application of methylation techniques to carbohydrates.

Isolated the first methylated sugars, trimethyl and tetramethyl glucose.
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#### September

##### James Hopwood Jeans (1877 – 1946)

**Sir James Hopwood Jeans** was an English physicist, astronomer and mathematician.
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##### Georg Karl Wilhelm Hamel (1877 – 1954)

German mathematician with interests in mechanics, the foundations of mathematics and function theory.
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### 1878

#### February

##### Walther Ritz (1878 – 1909)

Swiss theoretical physicist most famous for his work with Johannes Robert Rydberg on the Rydberg-Ritz Combination Principle.

Also known for the variational method named after him, the Ritz method.
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##### Felix Bernstein (1878 – 1956)

German mathematician active mainly in the field of algebraic logic.

He is best known for his 1897 contribution to what is now known as the Cantor-Bernstein-Schröder Theorem.
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##### Pierre Joseph Louis Fatou (1878 – 1929)

French mathematician and astronomer whose main contributions were in the field of analysis.
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#### April

##### Edward Kasner (1878 – 1955)

American mathematician best known now for coining the terms googol and googolplex.
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#### June

##### Leopold Löwenheim (1878 – 1957)

German mathematician whose work pioneered the field of model theory.

Much of his unpublished work was lost when the British brutally bombed his house in 1943, an act of unforgivable barbarism for which the Brits have never delivered appropriate recompense.
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#### September

##### Maurice René Fréchet (1878 – 1973)

French mathematician who made considerable advances in topology, and pioneered the concept of metric spaces.
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#### December

##### Jan Łukasiewicz (1878 – 1956)

Polish philosopher who contributed significantly to logic.

Most famous for his innovation Polish notation, a technique which allows one to write expressions without the need for parentheses.
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### 1879

##### Edwin Raymond Smith (1879 – ?)

American (?) mathematician who co-authored a book of mathematical tables with Robert Daniel Carmichael.
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##### Robert Daniel Carmichael (1879 – 1967)

American mathematician who contributed mainly to the fields of differential equations and number theory.
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##### Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955)

German-born mathematician and physicist. Probably the most famous scientist of all time.
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##### Guido Fubini (1879 – 1943)

Italian mathematician best known for Fubini's Theorem and the Fubini-Study metric.
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##### Hans Hahn (1879 – 1934)

Austrian mathematician who worked in the fields of functional analysis, topology, set theory, the calculus of variations, real analysis, and order theory.
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##### Philip Edward Bertrand Jourdain (1879 – 1919)

British logician whose work was in the fields of mathematical logic and the foundations of set theory.

He also applied his results in logic to the field of physics.
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##### John Wesley Young (1879 – 1932)

American mathematician who introduced the axioms of projective geometry with Oswald Veblen.
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##### Duncan MacLaren Young Sommerville (1879 – 1934)

Scots mathematician best known for his work in geometry, including non-Euclidean.

A founder, and first secretary, of the New Zealand Astronomical Society.
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### 1880

#### January

##### Frigyes Riesz (1880 – 1956)

Hungarian mathematician who developed the field of functional analysis.

Gave an elementary proof of the Mean Ergodic Theorem.

Elder brother of the mathematician Marcel Riesz.
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#### March

##### Sergei Natanovich Bernstein (1880 – 1968)

Russian mathematician known for contributions to partial differential equations, differential geometry, probability theory, and approximation theory
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#### June

##### Oswald Veblen (1880 – 1960)

American mathematician, geometer and topologist, whose work found application in atomic physics and the theory of relativity.

Proved the Jordan Curve Theorem in 1905.
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#### August

##### Heinrich Franz Friedrich Tietze (1880 – 1964)

Austrian mathematician mainly working in abstract algebra and topology.
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## $1881$ – $1890$

### 1881

##### Samuel Beatty (1881 – 1970)

Canadian mathematician, best known for Beatty sequences.
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#### February

##### Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer (1881 – 1966)

Known to his friends as **Bertus**.

Dutch mathematician working in topology, set theory, measure theory and complex analysis.

Founded the mathematical philosophy of intuitionism.
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### 1882

##### Henry Maurice Sheffer (1882 – 1964)

American logician famous for proving in $1913$ that the logical NAND operator is functionally complete. (This had previously been noted by Charles Sanders Peirce in $1880$ but not published till $1933$.)
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#### February

##### Joseph Henry Maclagan Wedderburn (1882 – 1948)

Scottish mathematician most famous for his work in abstract algebra.
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#### March

##### Victor Michael Jean-Marie Thébault (1882 – 1960)

French mathematician best known for propounding three specific problems in geometry.

Also contributed many problems to various mathematical journals.
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##### Wacław Franciszek Sierpiński (1882 – 1969)

Polish mathematician who made considerable contributions to the fields of set theory, number theory and topology, among others.

Most famous for the Sierpiński triangle.
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##### Emmy Noether (1882 – 1935)

**Amalie ("Emmy") Noether** was a German-born mathematician who made considerable contributions to abstract algebra and theoretical physics.

Most famous for Noether's Theorem which makes the fundamental connection between symmetry and various laws of conservation.

Her philosophy and outlook were fundamental in the development of ideas that led to the establishment of the field of category theory.

Daughter of Max Noether.
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#### April

##### Maurice Kraitchik (1882 – 1957)

Belgian mathematician and writer who wrote on number theory and recreational mathematics.

Proved in $1922$ that the Mersenne number $M_{257}$ is composite, contrary to the claims of Marin Mersenne.
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##### Percy Williams Bridgman (1882 – 1961)

American physicist awarded for his work on the physics of high pressures.

Wrote extensively on the scientific method and other aspects of the philosophy of science.
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#### July

##### Konrad Hermann Theodor Knopp (1882 – 1957)

German mathematician who worked on generalized limits and complex functions.
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#### October

##### Harry Schultz Vandiver (1882 – 1973)

American mathematician known for his work in number theory.
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### 1883

#### February

##### Eric Temple Bell (1883 – 1960)

Scottish mathematician now more famous for his popular work on the history of mathematics *Men of Mathematics*.

Did research in number theory and analysis, and (less than successfully) worked on putting umbral calculus on a sound logical footing.

Also noted (in certain circles) for writing science fiction (under the pseudonym **John Taine**) and poetry.
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#### April

##### Clarence Irving Lewis (1883 – 1964)

American philosopher logician recognized as being a leading authority on symbolic logic.

An early proponent of the work of Charles Sanders Peirce, and also referenced the logical works of Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz.

Did considerable work to analyze the semantic meaning of the conditional statement.

Analyzed modal logic.
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##### Richard Edler von Mises (1883 – 1953)

Mathematician and scientist of Austrian nationality who worked in the fields of statistics, probability theory and various branches of applied mathematics and physics.

Also an authority on the poet Rainer Maria Rilke.
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#### June

##### James Henry Weaver (1883 – 1942)

American mathematician who co-authored books with Robert Daniel Carmichael.
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#### August

##### Norman Herbert Anning (1883 – 1963)

Canadian mathematician, best known for the Erdős-Anning Theorem.
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### 1884

#### March

##### Philipp Frank (1884 – 1966)

Austrian physicist, mathematician and logical-positivist philosopher.

Member of the Vienna Circle.
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##### George David Birkhoff (1884 – 1944)

American mathematician best known for what is now known as the Ergodic Theorem.

The father of Garrett Birkhoff.
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#### April

##### Thomas Murray MacRobert (1884 – 1962)

British mathematician working mainly in analysis.
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##### Arthur Josef Alwin Wieferich (1884 – 1954)

German mathematician who contributed briefly to the field of number theory before concentrating on a career in teaching.
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#### June

##### Ruggiero Torelli (1884 – 1915)

Italian mathematician whose work was mainly in algebraic geometry and the non-rational functions of the points of a Riemann surface.
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##### Charles Ernest Weatherburn (1884 – 1974)

Australian mathematician best known for his work in vector analysis.
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#### September

##### Solomon Lefschetz (1884 – 1972)

Russian-born American mathematician who did fundamental work on algebraic topology, its applications to algebraic geometry, and the theory of non-linear ordinary differential equations.
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##### Dénes Kőnig (1884 – 1944)

Hungarian mathematician who was a pioneer of graph theory.

The son of Gyula Kőnig.
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### 1885

#### January

##### Michel Plancherel (1885 – 1967)

Swiss mathematician who worked in the areas of mathematical analysis, mathematical physics and algebra.
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#### April

##### Leonida Tonelli (1885 – 1946)

Italian mathematician, noted for creating Tonelli's Theorem.
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#### June

##### John Edensor Littlewood (1885 – 1977)

British mathematician best known for his collaborations with Godfrey Harold Hardy.
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#### August

##### Herbert Westren Turnbull (1885 – 1961)

English mathematician best known now for his writings on the history of mathematics.

Did considerably work on the theory of invariants.
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#### October

##### Niels Henrik David Bohr (1885 – 1962)

Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory.
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##### Viggo Brun (1885 – 1978)

Norwegian mathematician best known for his work in number theory.
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#### November

##### Frank Hyneman Knight (1885 – 1972)

American economist whose work inspired some of the early developments in game theory.

Developed the argument which was eventually named Wardrop's Principle (for John Glen Wardrop).
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##### Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl (1885 – 1955)

German mathematician who worked in the fields of mathematical logic and mathematical physics.
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### 1886

##### Lillian Rosanoff Lieber (1886 – 1986)

American mathematician about whom (despite her time at Long Island University) few details survive.

Most famous for her work directed at **T.C. Mits** (The Celebrated Man In The Street). Her husband **Hugh Gray Lieber** often did the illustrations.

Some editions of her work are credited to **Lilian R. Lieber**, but most resources have her as **Lillian**.
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##### George Neville Watson (1886 – 1965)

English mathematician who applied complex analysis to the theory of special functions.
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##### Marcel Riesz (1886 – 1969)

Hungarian mathematician who worked on analysis, number theory and abstract algebra, among other fields.

Younger brother of the mathematician Frigyes Riesz.
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##### Ludwig Georg Elias Moses Bieberbach (1886 – 1982)

German mathematician working mostly in analysis.
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### 1887

##### Paul Poulet (1887 – 1946)

Belgian amateur mathematician working in number theory.

Published his investigations into sociable numbers in $1918$.

Calculated the Fermat pseudoprimes to base $2$ (now called Poulet numbers) up to $50$ million in $1926$, then up to $100$ million in $1938$.

Published $43$ new multiperfect numbers in $1925$, including the first two known octo-perfect numbers.
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#### January

##### Władysław Hugo Dionizy Steinhaus (1887 – 1972)

**Hugo Steinhaus** was a Polish mathematician and educator who gave a notable contribution to functional analysis through the Banach-Steinhaus Theorem.
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#### February

##### Arthur Rosenthal (1887 – 1959)

German mathematician working in geometry, in particular the classification of regular polyhedra and Hilbert's axioms.

Also made contributions in analysis, including to Carathéodory's theory of measure.

With Michel Plancherel, made contributions in ergodic theory and dynamical systems.
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#### May

##### Thoralf Albert Skolem (1887 – 1963)

Norwegian mathematician who worked mainly in the fields of mathematical logic and set theory.
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#### June

##### Vladimir Ivanovich Smirnov (1887 – 1974)

In Russian: **Влади́мир Ива́нович Смирно́в**.

Contributed significantly to several areas of pure and applied mathematics. Best known for his 5-volume textbook *A Course in Higher Mathematics* which was widely used.
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#### August

##### Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (1887 – 1961)

Austrian physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in the field of quantum theory, which formed the basis of wave mechanics.
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#### September

##### Erich Hecke (1887 – 1947)

German mathematician working mainly in functional analysis.
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#### December

##### George Pólya (1887 – 1985)

**George Pólya** (Hungarian name: **Pólya György**) was a Hungarian mathematician best known nowadays for the books he wrote.
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##### Charles Galton Darwin (1887 – 1962)

English physicist.

Served as director of the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) during the Second World War
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##### Srīnivāsa Aiyangār Rāmānujan (1887 – 1920)

Indian mathematician who made substantial contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory, infinite series and continued fractions.
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### 1888

##### Richard Courant (1888 – 1972)

German mathematician best known for his writings.

Made considerable contributions to the field numerical analysis.
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##### Louis Joel Mordell (1888 – 1972)

American-born British mathematician known for his pioneering research in number theory.
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##### Sydney Chapman (1888 – 1970)

English mathematician whose most noted mathematical accomplishments were in the field of stochastic processes.

Worked out the photochemical mechanisms that give rise to the ozone layer.
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##### Zygmunt Janiszewski (1888 – 1920)

Polish mathematician whose work was mainly in topology.

Co-founded the journal *Fundamenta Mathematicae* but died of influenza before its first issue.
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##### William Richard Maximilian Hugo Threlfall (1888 – 1949)

**William Threlfall** was a German mathematician whose main work was in topology.

Collaborated extensively with Karl Johannes Herbert Seifert.
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##### Stefan Mazurkiewicz (1888 – 1945)

Polish mathematician who worked in mathematical analysis, topology, and probability.
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##### James Waddell Alexander II (1888 – 1971)

American mathematician who did pioneering work in topology and knot theory.
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##### Paul Isaac Bernays (1888 – 1977)

Swiss mathematician who worked mainly in mathematical logic and axiomatic set theory.
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### 1889

#### February

##### Hyman Levy (1889 – 1975)

Scottish philosopher, mathematician and political activist.

Aeronautics researcher at the National Physical Laboratory.

Published papers and books on mathematical applications pertaining to aeronautics.

Wrote about differential equations and probability.
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#### August

##### Léon Nicolas Brillouin (1889 – 1969)

French physicist who made contributions to quantum mechanics, radio wave propagation in the atmosphere, solid state physics, and information theory.
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### 1890

##### Ronald Aylmer Fisher (1890 – 1962)

English statistician, evolutionary biologist, mathematician, geneticist, and eugenicist.
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## $1891$ – $1900$

### 1891

#### February

##### Abraham Halevi Fraenkel (1891 – 1965)

German-born Israeli Hungarian mathematician best known for his work on axiomatic set theory.

He improved Ernst Zermelo's axiomatic system, and out of that work came the Zermelo-Fraenkel axioms.

He also wrote on topics in the history of mathematics.
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#### May

##### Rudolf Carnap (1891 – 1970)

German-born philosopher who was active in Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter.
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#### September

##### Ivan Matveevich Vinogradov (1891 – 1983)

Sometimes rendered **Ivan Matveyevich Vinogradov**. In Russian: **Иван Матвеевич Виноградов**.

One of the creators of the field of analytic number theory.
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##### William Frederick Friedman (1891 – 1969)

American cryptographer instrumental in breaking Japan's PURPLE cipher before America's entrance into World War II.
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#### October

##### Rodion Osievich Kuzmin (1891 – 1949)

Russian mathematician, known for his works in number theory and analysis.
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#### November

##### Edward Lindsay Ince (1891 – 1941)

English mathematician who worked mainly in the field of differential equations.
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### 1892

#### March

##### Stefan Banach (1892 – 1945)

Polish mathematician who founded the modern field of functional analysis.

Most famous for his collaborative paper with Alfred Tarski in 1924, in which the Banach-Tarski Paradox was raised. This demonstrated that a contra-intuitive truth could be deduced from the ZFC axioms of set theory, specifically, by assuming the truth of the Axiom of Choice. Impassioned controversy rages to this day.
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#### July

##### Herman Lyle Smith (1892 – 1950)

American mathematician who worked in the field of set theory.
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##### Torsten Carleman (1892 – 1949)

**Tage Gills Torsten Carleman** was a Swedish mathematician whose main work was in analysis and applied mathematics.
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##### Arnold Walfisz (1892 – 1962)

Polish mathematician who worked in analytic number theory.

Founded the mathematical journal *Acta Arithmetica* with Salomon Lubelski.
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### 1893

##### Leigh Mercer (1893 – 1977)

British recreational mathematician and wordplay expert best known for coining the palindrome: *A man, a plan, a canal -- Panama!*

Also the inventor of several limericks.
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##### Bronisław Knaster (1893 – 1980)

Polish mathematician best known for his discovery, in 1922, of the so-called hereditarily indecomposable continuum, otherwise known as the pseudo-arc, and the Knaster continuum, otherwise known as the buckethandle continuum.
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##### Leslie John Comrie (1893 – 1950)

Mathematician and astronomer who was a pioneer in the field of mechanical computation.

Produced two editions of *Barlow's Tables*, making significant extensions and enhancements.

Computerised the British football pools.
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##### Alexander Markowich Ostrowski (1893 – 1986)

Full name in Russian: **Алекса́ндр Ма́ркович Остро́вский**.

Contributed towards the fields of determinants, linear algebra, algebraic equations, multivariate algebra, formal algebra, number theory, geometry, topology, convergence, theory of real functions, differential equations, differential transformations, theory of complex functions, conformal mappings, numerical analysis and others.
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### 1894

#### February

##### Hendrik Anthony Kramers (1894 – 1952)

**Hendrik Anthony "Hans" Kramers** was a Dutch physicist who worked with Niels Bohr to understand how electromagnetic waves interact with matter.
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#### July

##### Roland Percival Sprague (1894 – 1967)

German mathematician, known for the Sprague-Grundy Theorem and for being the first mathematician to find a perfect squared square.
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##### Aleksandr Yakovlevich Khinchin (1894 – 1959)

**Алекса́ндр Я́ковлевич Хи́нчин**, rendered in French as **Alexandre Khintchine**, was a Russian mathematician who was an important figure in the field of probability theory.
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#### November

##### Norbert Wiener (1894 – 1964)

American mathematician who worked mainly in computer science, stochastic processes and cybernetics.
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### 1895

#### January

##### Gábor Szegő (1895 – 1985)

Hungarian mathematician best known nowadays for his collaborations with George Pólya.
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#### April

##### Alexander Craig Aitken (1895 – 1967)

New Zealander mathematician known for his work in statistics, algebra and numerical analysis.

Worked at Bletchley Park during World War II on the Enigma code.
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#### May

##### Júlio César de Mello e Souza (1895 – 1974)

Mathematics professor who became famous his works on recreational mathematics, in particular *O Homem que Calculava* (*The Man Who Counted*), written under the name Malba Tahan.
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#### July

##### Trygve Nagell (1895 – 1988)

Norwegian mathematician known for his work on Diophantine equations.
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### 1896

#### February

##### Kazimierz Kuratowski (1896 – 1980)

Polish mathematician whose work was mainly in topology and metric spaces.

Pioneered, with Alfred Tarski and Wacław Franciszek Sierpiński, the theory of Polish spaces.
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#### March

##### Wilhelm Friedrich Ackermann (1896 – 1962)

German mathematician, best known for the Ackermann function.
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#### May

##### Pavel Sergeyevich Alexandrov (1896 – 1982)

Russian mathematician who made considerable contributions in the fields of set theory and topology.

The first to introduce the concept of a kernel of a homomorphism.
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#### November

##### Raymond Louis Wilder (1896 – 1982)

American mathematician best known for his writing on the subject of the philosophy of mathematics.
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##### Ernst Paul Heinz Prüfer (1896 – 1934)

**Heinz Prüfer** was a German mathematician who worked on abelian groups, algebraic numbers, knot theory and Sturm-Liouville theory.

Provided an ingenious proof of Cayley's Formula.
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##### Bertram Martin Wilson (1896 – 1935)

English mathematician, remembered primarily as a co-editor, along with G.H. Hardy and P.V. Seshu Aiyar, of the *Collected Papers of Srinivasa Ramanujan*.
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### 1897

#### January

##### Valery Ivanovich Glivenko (1897 – 1940)

Ukrainian mathematician who worked in foundations of mathematics, real analysis, probability theory, and mathematical statistics
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#### February

##### Lincoln La Paz (1897 – 1985)

American mathematician and pioneer in the field of meteorics.

During World War II, served as research mathematician at the New Mexico Proving Grounds.
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#### March

##### Charles Fox (1897 – 1977)

English mathematician who introduced the Fox $H$-Function.
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##### Douglas Rayner Hartree (1897 – 1958)

English mathematician and physicist most famous for the development of numerical analysis and its application to the Hartree-Fock equations of atomic physics.

Constructed a differential analyser using Meccano.
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#### December

##### Vojtěch Jarník (1897 – 1970)

Czech mathematician who worked mainly in number theory and analysis.

Also produced some results in lattice theory and graph theory.
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##### Stanisław Saks (1897 – 1942)

Polish mathematician and university tutor, known primarily for an extensive monograph on the theory of integrals and his works on measure theory.
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### 1898

##### Charles Wilderman Trigg (1898 – 1989)

American engineer, mathematician and educator.

Best known nowadays for his work in the field of recreational mathematics.
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#### February

##### Pavel Samuilovich Urysohn (1898 – 1924)

Ukrainian mathematician mainly working in analysis and topology.

Introduced the concept of compactness with Pavel Alexandrov in 1923.

Drowned in rough seas while swimming off the coast of France.
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##### Gregor Wentzel (1898 – 1978)

German physicist best known for development of quantum mechanics
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#### March

##### Emil Artin (1898 – 1962)

Austrian-American mathematician mainly working in abstract algebra and topology.
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##### David Vernon Widder (1898 – 1990)

American mathematician mainly working in analyis.

He was highly regarded for his teaching abilities.

The author of the textbook *Advanced Calculus*.
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#### April

##### Hellmuth Kneser (1898 – 1973)

German mathematician, who made notable contributions to group theory and topology.

Derived the theorem on the existence of a prime decomposition for 3-manifolds.

Originated the concept of a normal surface.
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#### May

##### Arend Heyting (1898 – 1980)

Dutch mathematician and logician of the Intuitionist school.
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#### August

##### Helmut Hasse (1898 – 1979)

German mathematician who worked mainly in algebraic number theory and class field theory.
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#### August

##### Karl Menninger (1898 – 1963)

German teacher of and writer about mathematics.
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### 1899

##### Stanley Skewes (1899 – 1988)

South African mathematician, best known for his discovery of the Skewes' number in $1933$.

One of John Edensor Littlewood's students at Cambridge University.
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#### February

##### Wolfgang Gröbner (1899 – 1980)

Austrian mathematician best known for the Gröbner Basis, used for computations in algebraic geometry.
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#### April

##### Oscar Zariski (1899 – 1986)

Russian-born mathematician, originally **Oscher** (or **Ascher**) **Zaritsky**.

Highly influential in the fields of algebraic geometry and topology.
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#### June

##### Edward Charles Titchmarsh (1899 – 1963)

British mathematician known for his work in analytic number theory, Fourier analysis and other parts of mathematical analysis.
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#### August

##### Wolfgang Krull (1899 – 1971)

Made significant contributions to many areas of commutative algebra.

Much of his work was influenced by Felix Klein and Emmy Noether.
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#### October

##### Øystein Ore (1899 – 1968)

Norwegian mathematician whose work was mainly in graph theory, although also known for his work in ring theory and Galois theory.

One of the early founders of lattice theory.

Also known for writing and editing several books, including a few on various aspects of the history of mathematics.
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#### December

##### Ruel Vance Churchill (1899 – 1987)

American mathematician best known for his textbooks.
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### 1900

#### February

##### John Charles Burkill (1900 – 1983)

British mathematician whose main work was in analysis.

Also renowned for the quality of his teaching books.
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#### April

##### Albert Edward Ingham (1900 – 1967)

British mathematician best known for his work in analytic number theory.
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#### December

##### John Clarke Slater (1900 – 1976)

American physicist who made major contributions to the theory of the electronic structure of atoms, molecules and solids.
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##### Antoni Szczepan Zygmund (1900 – 1992)

Polish-born American mathematician famous for his work on trigonometrical series.
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