# Mathematician:Mathematicians/Sorted By Birth/1851 - 1900 CE

For more comprehensive information on the lives and works of mathematicians through the ages, see the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, created by John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson.

*The army of those who have made at least one definite contribution to mathematics as we know it soon becomes a mob as we look back over history; 6,000 or 8,000 names press forward for some word from us to preserve them from oblivion, and once the bolder leaders have been recognised it becomes largely a matter of arbitrary, illogical legislation to judge who of the clamouring multitude shall be permitted to survive and who be condemned to be forgotten.*- -- Eric Temple Bell:
*Men of Mathematics*, 1937, Victor Gollancz, London

- -- Eric Temple Bell:

## $\text {1851}$ – $\text {1860}$

### 1851

#### March

##### George Chrystal $($$\text {1851}$ – $\text {1911}$$)$

Scots mathematician primarily remembered for his books on algebra and for his studies of wave patterns in large inland bodies of water.
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#### June

##### Silvanus Phillips Thompson $($$\text {1851}$ – $\text {1916}$$)$

English professor of physics, known for his work as an electrical engineer and as an author.

Author of the $1910$ text *Calculus Made Easy*, which teaches the fundamentals of infinitesimal calculus, and is still in print.
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### 1852

##### François Proth $($$\text {1852}$ – $\text {1879}$$)$

French farmer who was also a self-taught mathematician.

Known for his analysis of Proth numbers and Proth primes.

Formulated Gilbreath's Conjecture on successive differences of primes, $80$ years before Norman L. Gilbreath, but his proof was incorrect.
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#### January

##### Giovanni Frattini $($$\text {1852}$ – $\text {1927}$$)$

Italian mathematician noted for his contributions to group theory.
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##### Clarence Abiathar Waldo $($$\text {1852}$ – $\text {1926}$$)$

American mathematician, author and educator today most famous for the role he played in the Indiana Pi Bill affair.
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#### April

##### Carl Louis Ferdinand von Lindemann $($$\text {1852}$ – $\text {1939}$$)$

German mathematician who made his mark by publishing a proof in $1882$ that $\pi$ is transcendental.
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#### July

##### William Burnside $($$\text {1852}$ – $\text {1927}$$)$

English mathematician who was one of the earliest researchers in group theory.
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### 1853

#### January

##### Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro $($$\text {1853}$ – $\text {1925}$$)$

Italian mathematician most famous as the inventor of tensor calculus, which he did in collaboration with Tullio Levi-Civita.
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#### April

##### Arthur Moritz Schönflies $($$\text {1853}$ – $\text {1928}$$)$

German mathematician known for his contributions to the application of group theory to crystallography, and for work in topology.
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#### July

##### Hendrik Antoon Lorentz $($$\text {1853}$ – $\text {1928}$$)$

Dutch physicist who shared the $1902$ Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and theoretical explanation of the Zeeman effect.

Also derived the transformation equations underpinning Albert Einstein's theory of special relativity.
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#### December

##### Evgraf Stepanovich Fedorov $($$\text {1853}$ – $\text {1919}$$)$

Russian mathematician, crystallographer and mineralogist.

Best known in the mathematics world for enumerating the $3$-dimensional space groups, now known as the Fedorov groups.
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### 1854

##### James Gow $($$\text {1854}$ – $\text {1923}$$)$

English scholar, educator, historian, and author, widely recognized for *A Short History of Greek Mathematics*.
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#### January

##### August Otto Föppl $($$\text {1854}$ – $\text {1924}$$)$

German mathematician credited with introducing Föppl-Klammer theory and the Föppl-von Kármán Equations.
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#### March

##### Joseph Edwards $($$\text {1854}$ – $\text {???}$$)$

English professor of mathematics best known for his textbooks.
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#### April

##### Hertha Marks Ayrton $($$\text {1854}$ – $\text {1923}$$)$

British engineer, mathematician, physicist, and inventor.

Awarded the Hughes Medal by the Royal Society for her work on electric arcs and ripples in sand and water.
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##### Jules Henri Poincaré $($$\text {1854}$ – $\text {1912}$$)$

French mathematician and philosopher.

Often referred to as "The last universalist", as he was the last one able to master the whole of mathematics at the time. (Since then the field has grown too large.)

Introduced the field of special relativity.
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#### May

##### Hans Carl Friedrich von Mangoldt $($$\text {1854}$ – $\text {1925}$$)$

German mathematician who contributed towards the solution of the Prime Number Theorem.
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#### June

##### Robert Hjalmar Mellin $($$\text {1854}$ – $\text {1933}$$)$

Finnish mathematician and who majored in functional theory.

Best known for the Mellin transform.
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#### September

##### Percy Alexander MacMahon $($$\text {1854}$ – $\text {1929}$$)$

British mathematician especially noted in connection with the partitions of numbers and enumerative combinatorics.
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#### November

##### Johan Ludvig Heiberg $($$\text {1854}$ – $\text {1928}$$)$

Danish historian best known for discovering previously unknown texts of Archimedes.

Also published an edition of Euclid's *The Elements*.
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### 1855

#### January

##### Christian Sophus Juel $($$\text {1855}$ – $\text {1935}$$)$

Danish mathematician specializing in geometry.
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#### July

##### George Arthur Plimpton $($$\text {1855}$ – $\text {1936}$$)$

American publisher and philanthropist, whose contribution to mathematics was his collection of rare ancient mathematical works which he donated to the Nicholas Murray Butler Library of Columbia University.
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#### August

##### Alfredo Capelli $($$\text {1855}$ – $\text {1910}$$)$

Italian mathematician best known for Capelli's Identity.

Also pioneered the notation $x^{\overline k}$ and $x^{\underline k}$ for rising factorial and falling factorial respectively.
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#### November

##### John Edward Aloysius Steggall $($$\text {1855}$ – $\text {1935}$$)$

British mathematician and educator whose research interests were in the theory of numbers and in kinematical geometry.
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### 1856

#### February

##### Micaiah John Muller Hill $($$\text {1856}$ – $\text {1929}$$)$

English mathematician, known for Hill's spherical vortex and Hill's tetrahedra.
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#### June

##### Andrey Andreyevich Markov $($$\text {1856}$ – $\text {1922}$$)$

Russian mathematician best known for his work on stochastic processes.
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##### Paul Friedrich Wolfskehl $($$\text {1856}$ – $\text {1906}$$)$

German physician with an interest in mathematics.

He bequeathed $100\,000$ marks (equivalent to $£ 1\,000\,000$ pounds in $1997$ money) to the first person to prove Fermat's Last Theorem.

By the time the prize was finally awarded to Andrew John Wiles on $27$ June $1997$, the monetary value of the award had dwindled to $£30\,000$.
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#### July

##### Nikola Tesla $($$\text {1856}$ – $\text {1943}$$)$

Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, and futurist best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.
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##### Giacinto Morera $($$\text {1856}$ – $\text {1909}$$)$

Italian mathematician and engineer best remembered for his work in complex analysis and the theory of linear elasticity.
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##### Charles Émile Picard $($$\text {1856}$ – $\text {1941}$$)$

French mathematician who made significant advances in the fields of:

Son-in-law of Charles Hermite.
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#### August

##### Carl David Tolmé Runge $($$\text {1856}$ – $\text {1927}$$)$

German mathematician, physicist, and spectroscopist.

Best known as the co-developer (with Martin Wilhelm Kutta) of the Runge-Kutta Methods in the field of numerical analysis.

Also known for his work on the Zeeman effect.

His work paved the way for the Thue-Siegel-Roth Theorem in the field of Diophantine equations.
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#### November

##### Charles Planck $($$\text {1856}$ – $\text {1935}$$)$

English mathematician best known for his discovery of an order $9$ perfect magic cube, accomplished in $1905$.
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#### December

##### Walther Franz Anton von Dyck $($$\text {1856}$ – $\text {1934}$$)$

German mathematician who was one of the pioneers of group theory.

The first to define a group in the abstract sense. The first to study a group by generators.

A student of Felix Klein.
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##### Joseph John Thomson $($$\text {1856}$ – $\text {1940}$$)$

British physicist credited with the discovery of the electron.
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##### Thomas Joannes Stieltjes $($$\text {1856}$ – $\text {1894}$$)$

Dutch mathematician whose main fields of study included continued fractions and measure theory.
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### 1857

##### Erwin Papperitz $($$\text {1857}$ – $\text {1938}$$)$

German mathematician who worked on the hypergeometric differential equation.
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#### February

##### William Roger Paton $($$\text {1857}$ – $\text {1921}$$)$

Scottish scholar of Greek who provided a translation of *The Greek Anthology Book XIV* containing mathematical puzzles and riddles.
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#### March

##### Karl Pearson $($$\text {1857}$ – $\text {1936}$$)$

Influential English mathematician and biometrician.

Credited with establishing the discipline of mathematical statistics.

Contributed significantly to the field of biometrics, meteorology, theories of social Darwinism and eugenics.
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#### April

##### Henry Ernest Dudeney $($$\text {1857}$ – $\text {1930}$$)$

English author and mathematician who specialised in logic puzzles and mathematical games.

Considered one of Britain's foremost creators of mathematical puzzles.
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#### May

##### Oskar Bolza $($$\text {1857}$ – $\text {1942}$$)$

German mathematician best known for his research in the calculus of variations, particularly influenced by Karl Weierstrass's $1879$ lectures on the subject.
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#### June

##### Aleksandr Mikhailovich Lyapunov $($$\text {1857}$ – $\text {1918}$$)$

Russian mathematician, mechanician and physicist, known for his development of the stability theory of a dynamical system, as well as for his many contributions to mathematical physics and probability theory.
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### 1858

#### April

##### Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck $($$\text {1858}$ – $\text {1947}$$)$

German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in $1918$.
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#### May

##### Édouard Jean-Baptiste Goursat $($$\text {1858}$ – $\text {1936}$$)$

French mathematician best known for his work in complex analysis.
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#### June

##### Andrew Russell Forsyth $($$\text {1858}$ – $\text {1942}$$)$

Scottish mathematician best known for his textbooks on differential equations and calculus of variations.
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#### August

##### Giuseppe Peano $($$\text {1858}$ – $\text {1932}$$)$

Italian mathematician who contributed significantly to the founding of the fields of mathematical logic and set theory.

Invented many of the symbols used today in these fields.

Worked on the axiomatization of mathematics, and contributed greatly towards the method of mathematical induction.
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### 1859

#### February

##### Florian Cajori $($$\text {1859}$ – $\text {1930}$$)$

Swiss-born American mathematician who specialized in (and in fact pioneered) the field of mathematics history.
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#### March

##### Ernesto Cesàro $($$\text {1859}$ – $\text {1906}$$)$

Italian mathematician who worked mainly in the fields of differential geometry and number theory.
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##### Samuil Osipovich Shatunovsky $($$\text {1859}$ – $\text {1929}$$)$

Ukrainian mathematician who focused on several topics in mathematical analysis and algebra, such as group theory, number theory and geometry.
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##### Adolf Hurwitz $($$\text {1859}$ – $\text {1919}$$)$

German mathematician who was an early master of the theory of Riemann surfaces.
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#### May

##### Johan Ludwig William Valdemar Jensen $($$\text {1859}$ – $\text {1925}$$)$

Danish mathematician and engineer best known for Jensen's Inequality and Jensen's Formula.
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#### August

##### Georg Alexander Pick $($$\text {1859}$ – $\text {1942}$$)$

Austrian mathematician best known for Pick's Formula for determining the area of lattice polygons.
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#### December

##### Otto Ludwig Hölder $($$\text {1859}$ – $\text {1937}$$)$

German mathematician most famous for his work in analysis (in particular Fourier series) and group theory.
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### 1860

#### January

##### David Eugene Smith $($$\text {1860}$ – $\text {1944}$$)$

American mathematician and educator best known for his translations of classics.
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#### February

##### Mathias Lerch $($$\text {1860}$ – $\text {1922}$$)$

Czech mathematician best known for his work on mathematical analysis and number theory.
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#### May

##### Jan Cornelis Kluyver $($$\text {1860}$ – $\text {1932}$$)$

Dutch mathematician who made important contributions to analysis, number theory and geometry.

Professor at Leiden University between 1892 and 1930.
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##### Samuel Giuseppe Vito Volterra $($$\text {1860}$ – $\text {1940}$$)$

Italian mathematician and physicist, known for his contributions to mathematical biology and integral equations.

One of the founders of functional analysis.
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#### June

##### Alicia Boole Stott $($$\text {1860}$ – $\text {1940}$$)$

Irish-English mathematician who made substantial contributions to the field of four-dimensional geometry, which she famously grasped at a very early age.

Coined the word polytope.
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#### September

##### Frank Morley $($$\text {1860}$ – $\text {1937}$$)$

English, later American, mathematician, known mostly for his teaching and research in the fields of algebra and geometry.
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## $\text {1861}$ – $\text {1870}$

### 1861

#### February

##### Alfred North Whitehead $($$\text {1861}$ – $\text {1947}$$)$

English mathematician who also studied philosophy.

Best known for his co-authorship with Bertrand Arthur William Russell of *Principia Mathematica*, published from 1910.
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##### George Ballard Mathews $($$\text {1861}$ – $\text {1922}$$)$

English mathematician who taught alongside Andrew Gray, with whom he coauthored a textbook on Bessel functions.

Also noted for his textbooks on number theory and projective geometry.
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#### March

##### Rao Bahadur Malur Rangacharya $($$\text {1861}$ – $\text {1916}$$)$

Indian scholastic best known for his translation of the work of Mahaviracharya.
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#### May

##### Conrad Heinrich Edmund Friedrich Busche $($$\text {1861}$ – $\text {1916}$$)$

German number theorist who did a lot of work on replicative functions and quadratic residues.
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#### August

##### Ivar Otto Bendixson $($$\text {1861}$ – $\text {1935}$$)$

Swedish mathematician who worked mainly in the fields of set theory, analysis and differential equations.
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##### Cesare Burali-Forti $($$\text {1861}$ – $\text {1931}$$)$

Italian mathematician best known for discovering what is now known as the Burali-Forti Paradox.

Disbelieved in the Theory of Relativity, and even went so far as to write a book attempting to refute it.
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#### September

##### Percy John Heawood $($$\text {1861}$ – $\text {1955}$$)$

English mathematician who devoted his working life to the Four Color Theorem.

In $1890$, exposed a flaw in Alfred Bray Kempe's proof, that had been considered as valid for $11$ years.

He never actually proved the theorem, which remained open until it was finally proved in $1976$ by Kenneth Ira Appel and Wolfgang Haken.
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##### Frank Nelson Cole $($$\text {1861}$ – $\text {1926}$$)$

American mathematician famous for finding the factors of the Mersenne number $M_{67}$. (It had already been demonstrated by Édouard Lucas in $1876$ that it is not prime, but till this time the factors had not been found.) Cole's demonstration of this in $1903$ took the form of a now famous lecture *On The Factorization of Large Numbers* in which he performed the necessary arithmetic on a blackboard, delivering the only totally wordless lecture in recorded history.

The American Mathematical Society's *Cole Prize* was named in his honor.
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#### October

##### Thomas Little Heath $($$\text {1861}$ – $\text {1940}$$)$

English Civil servant who is best known for his scholarly translations of the Greek classics of mathematics into English.
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#### November

##### Paul Rudolf Eugen Jahnke $($$\text {1861}$ – $\text {1921}$$)$

German mathematician best known for his $1909$ *Funktionentafeln mit Formeln und Kurven*.
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#### December

##### Friedrich Engel $($$\text {1861}$ – $\text {1941}$$)$

German mathematician specialising in partial differential equations.
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##### Kurt Wilhelm Sebastian Hensel $($$\text {1861}$ – $\text {1941}$$)$

German mathematician best known for his introduction of $p$-adic numbers.
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### 1862

#### January

##### David Hilbert $($$\text {1862}$ – $\text {1943}$$)$

One of the most influential mathematicians in the late $19$th and early $20$th century.

Most famous for the Hilbert $23$, a list he delivered in $1900$ of $23$ problems which were at the time still unsolved.
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##### Eliakim Hastings Moore $($$\text {1862}$ – $\text {1932}$$)$

American mathematician working in abstract algebra and the foundations of geometry, among others.
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#### March

##### Leonard James Rogers $($$\text {1862}$ – $\text {1933}$$)$

English mathematician famous for the Rogers-Ramanujan Identities and for proving a special case of Hölder's inequality.
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#### May

##### Gino Benedetto Loria $($$\text {1862}$ – $\text {1954}$$)$

Italian mathematician and historian of mathematics.
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#### August

##### Jules Antoine Richard $($$\text {1862}$ – $\text {1956}$$)$

French mathematician best known for Richard's Paradox.
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##### Roberto Marcolongo $($$\text {1862}$ – $\text {1943}$$)$

Italian mathematician, known for his research in vector calculus and theoretical physics.
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#### December

##### Wilhelm Weinberg $($$\text {1862}$ – $\text {1937}$$)$

German obstetrician-gynecologist who expressed the concept that would later come to be known as the Hardy-Weinberg Principle.
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### 1863

#### February

##### Axel Thue $($$\text {1863}$ – $\text {1922}$$)$

Norwegian mathematician, known for his original work in diophantine approximation and combinatorics.
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#### March

##### James Watt (II) $($$\text {1863}$ – $\text {1945}$$)$

Scottish lawyer and actuary with an interest in science.
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#### July

##### Alfred Heinrich Bucherer $($$\text {1863}$ – $\text {1927}$$)$

German physicist known for his experiments on relativistic mass.

The first to use the phrase "theory of relativity" for Einstein's theory of special relativity.
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##### Herbert William Richmond $($$\text {1863}$ – $\text {1948}$$)$

English mathematician who did considerable work in the field of algebraic geometry.

Most famous now for his construction of the regular $17$-gon.

Worked on ballistics during World War I, the results of which influenced continuing work on the subject in World War II.
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#### September

##### Lars Edvard Phragmén $($$\text {1863}$ – $\text {1937}$$)$

Swedish mathematician who contributed towards the field of complex function theory.

Also contributed towards the field of insurance mathematics.
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#### October

##### William Henry Young $($$\text {1863}$ – $\text {1942}$$)$

English mathematician, who worked on measure theory, Fourier series, differential calculus amongst other fields.

Made brilliant and long-lasting contributions to the study of functions of several complex variables.
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#### November

##### Walter Percy Workman $($$\text {1863}$ – $\text {1918}$$)$

English mathematician and schoolmaster best known for the school textbooks he wrote.

A proponent of the metric system.
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#### December

##### Paul Painlevé $($$\text {1863}$ – $\text {1933}$$)$

French mathematician who worked on differential equations and the emerging new physics.

Later in life became Prime Minister of France.
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### 1864

#### March

##### William Fogg Osgood $($$\text {1864}$ – $\text {1943}$$)$

American mathematician working in complex analysis, in particular conformal mapping and uniformization of analytic functions, and calculus of variations.

Wrote on the theory of the gyroscope.
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##### József Kürschák $($$\text {1864}$ – $\text {1933}$$)$

Hungarian mathematician noted for his work on trigonometry and for his creation of the theory of valuations.
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##### Alwin Reinhold Korselt $($$\text {1864}$ – $\text {1947}$$)$

German mathematician best known for Korselt's Theorem which provides a definition for Carmichael numbers.

Contributed an early result in relational algebra.
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#### June

##### Hermann Minkowski $($$\text {1864}$ – $\text {1909}$$)$

Created and developed the field of geometry of numbers.
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### 1865

#### April

##### Charles Proteus Steinmetz $($$\text {1865}$ – $\text {1923}$$)$

Prussian-born American mathematician and electrical engineer and professor at Union College.

Fostered development of alternating current that enabled expansion of electric power industry in United States.

Formulated mathematical theories for engineers.

Explained the phenomenon of hysteresis.
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#### May

##### Alfred Cardew Dixon $($$\text {1865}$ – $\text {1936}$$)$

English mathematician well known for his work in differential equations.

Did early work on Fredholm integrals independently of Fredholm.

Worked both on ordinary differential equations and on partial differential equations studying Abelian integrals, automorphic functions, and functional equations.
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##### Pieter Zeeman $($$\text {1865}$ – $\text {1943}$$)$

Dutch physicist who shared the $1902$ Nobel Prize in Physics with Hendrik Antoon Lorentz for his discovery of the Zeeman effect.
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#### October

##### Willem Abraham Wythoff $($$\text {1865}$ – $\text {1939}$$)$

Dutch mathematician known for his work in in combinatorial game theory and number theory.

Also known for his work in geometry, in particular for the Wythoff construction of uniform tilings and uniform polyhedra.
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#### December

##### Jacques Salomon Hadamard $($$\text {1865}$ – $\text {1963}$$)$

French mathematician who contributed in the fields of:

Most famous for proving the Prime Number Theorem in 1896, independently of Charles de la Vallée Poussin.
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### 1866

#### June

##### James P. Pierpont $($$\text {1866}$ – $\text {1938}$$)$

American mathematician working first in Galois theory, and then in real and complex analysis.
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#### August

##### Charles de la Vallée Poussin $($$\text {1866}$ – $\text {1962}$$)$

Belgian mathematician famous for proving the Prime Number Theorem, independently of Jacques Salomon Hadamard in $1896$.
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#### November

##### George Godfrey Berry $($$\text {1866}$ – $\text {1930}$$)$

Presumably English scholar, about whom little is known, who gave his name to the Berry Paradox.

His understanding of logic and the concepts underpinning mathematical logic was a strong influence on Bertrand Russell.
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##### Georg Wilhelm Scheffers $($$\text {1866}$ – $\text {1945}$$)$

German mathematician whose specialty was differential geometry.

Also a writer of several well-received textbooks.
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### 1867

#### March

##### Karl Zsigmondy $($$\text {1867}$ – $\text {1925}$$)$

Austrian mathematician of Hungarian ethnicity, best known for Zsigmondy's Theorem, discovered in $1882$.
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#### April

##### James Cullen $($$\text {1867}$ – $\text {1933}$$)$

Irish Jesuit priest who also developed some results in number theory.
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#### June

##### John Dougall $($$\text {1867}$ – $\text {1960}$$)$

Scottish mathematician best known for his work in combinatorics.
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#### July

##### Derrick Norman Lehmer $($$\text {1867}$ – $\text {1938}$$)$

American mathematician active mainly in the field of number theory.

The father of Derrick Henry ("Dick") Lehmer.
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#### August

##### Charles Albert Noble $($$\text {1867}$ – $\text {1962}$$)$

American mathematician who worked mainly on differential equations.
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##### Maxime Bôcher $($$\text {1867}$ – $\text {1918}$$)$

American mathematician who worked on differential equations, series, and algebra.
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#### November

##### Martin Wilhelm Kutta $($$\text {1867}$ – $\text {1944}$$)$

German mathematician best known for co-developing (with Carl David Tolmé Runge) of the Runge-Kutta Methods in the field of numerical analysis.

Also known for the Zhukovsky-Kutta Aerofoil.
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### 1868

#### March

##### Grace Emily Chisholm Young $($$\text {1868}$ – $\text {1944}$$)$

English mathematician who became the first woman to receive a doctorate in Germany, in any field.
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##### Robert Andrews Millikan $($$\text {1868}$ – $\text {1953}$$)$

American experimental physicist who worked with Harvey Fletcher on measuring the elementary electric charge.

Also worked on the photoelectric effect.
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#### June

##### Gilbert Thomas Walker $($$\text {1868}$ – $\text {1958}$$)$

English physicist and statistician.

Studied mathematics and applied it to a variety of fields including aerodynamics, electromagnetism and the analysis of time-series data.

Worked for Indian Meteorological Department on statistical approaches to predict the monsoons.

Developed the Yule-Walker equations.

Instrumental in aiding the early career of Srinivasa Ramanujan.
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#### November

##### Felix Hausdorff $($$\text {1868}$ – $\text {1942}$$)$

German mathematician fundamental in the development of modern topology.

Also active in set theory, measure theory and function theory.

The first to formulate what is now known as the Generalized Continuum Hypothesis.
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#### December

##### Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld $($$\text {1868}$ – $\text {1951}$$)$

German theoretical physicist who pioneered developments in atomic and quantum physics.
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##### Emanuel Lasker $($$\text {1868}$ – $\text {1941}$$)$

German philosopher and mathematician who was also one of the greatest chess-players of all time.

Inventor of the game now known as Lasca.
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### 1869

##### Percival Abbott $($$\text {1869}$ – $\text {1954}$$)$

British mathematician known for writing accessible textbooks for self-learning.
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#### April

##### Élie Joseph Cartan $($$\text {1869}$ – $\text {1951}$$)$

Influential French mathematician who did fundamental work in the theory of Lie groups and their geometric applications.

Made significant contributions to mathematical physics, differential geometry, and group theory.
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#### August

##### Mary Frances Winston Newson $($$\text {1869}$ – $\text {1959}$$)$

American mathematician who became the first female American to receive a PhD in mathematics from a European university, namely the University of Göttingen in Germany.
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#### December

##### Dmitri Fyodorovich Egorov $($$\text {1869}$ – $\text {1931}$$)$

Russian mathematician noted for his contributions to differential geometry and analysis.

His religious views caused him to fall foul of the Soviet regime and he died as a result of a hunger strike he embarked upon while in prison for being a "religious sectarian".
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### 1870

#### January

##### Niels Fabian Helge von Koch $($$\text {1870}$ – $\text {1924}$$)$

Swedish mathematician who gave his name to the famous fractal known as the Koch snowflake, one of the earliest fractal curves to be described.
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#### February

##### Horatio Scott Carslaw $($$\text {1870}$ – $\text {1954}$$)$

Scottish-Australian mathematician best known for his work on the conduction of heat in solids.
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#### March

##### Ernst Leonard Lindelöf $($$\text {1870}$ – $\text {1946}$$)$

Finnish topologist who also worked on differential equations and the gamma function.

Wrote a series of highly-regarded textbooks and published extensively on the history of Finnish mathematics.
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#### October

##### Henri Claudius Rosaris Dulac $($$\text {1870}$ – $\text {1955}$$)$

French mathematician majoring in differential equations and real analysis.
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## $\text {1871}$ – $\text {1880}$

### 1871

#### January

##### Gino Fano $($$\text {1871}$ – $\text {1952}$$)$

Italian mathematician best known as the founder of the finite geometry.
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##### Félix Édouard Justin Émile Borel $($$\text {1871}$ – $\text {1956}$$)$

French mathematician working mainly in measure theory and its applications to probability theory.
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#### February

##### George Udny Yule $($$\text {1871}$ – $\text {1951}$$)$

Scottish statistician, particularly known for the Yule distribution.
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#### May

##### Vladimir Andreyevich Markov $($$\text {1871}$ – $\text {1897}$$)$

Russian mathematician noted for the solution of the Markov Brothers' Inequality, with his elder brother Andrey Andreyevich Markov.

Died of tuberculosis at the tragically young age of 25.
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#### July

##### Ernst Friedrich Ferdinand Zermelo $($$\text {1871}$ – $\text {1953}$$)$

German mathematician best known for his work on the foundations of mathematics.

Laid the groundwork (later to be enhanced by Abraham Fraenkel) for what are now known as the Zermelo-Fraenkel axioms of axiomatic set theory.
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#### August

##### Ernest Rutherford $($$\text {1871}$ – $\text {1937}$$)$

New Zealand physicist who discovered the concept of radioactive half-life, the radioactive element radon, and differentiated and named alpha and beta radiation.
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### 1872

#### January

##### Peruvemba Venkatesvara Seshu Aiyar $($$\text {1872}$ – $\text {1935}$$)$

Indian mathematician best known for contributing towards the general publication of the work of Srinivasa Aiyangar Ramanujan.
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#### May

##### Bertrand Arthur William Russell $($$\text {1872}$ – $\text {1970}$$)$

British philosopher, mathematician and logician.

Best known for his co-authorship with Alfred North Whitehead of *Principia Mathematica*, published from $1910$.
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#### August

##### Horace Scudder Uhler $($$\text {1872}$ – $\text {1956}$$)$

American physicist who worked on geometrical optics, spectroscopy and X-rays.

As a mathematician, demonstrated several Mersenne numbers to be composite without finding one single Mersenne prime.

Also calculated the values of many irrational numbers such as logarithms, reciprocals and roots to a colosssal number of decimal places.

Published the value of $\map {\log_{10} } {9^{9^9} }$ to $250$ decimal places in $1947$.
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### 1873

##### Sydney George Starling $($$\text {1873}$ – $\text {1955}$$)$

British physicist whose specialty was in electricity and magnetism.
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#### January

##### Hans Frederick Blichfeldt $($$\text {1873}$ – $\text {1945}$$)$

Danish and American mathematician who worked on group theory and the geometry of numbers.
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#### March

##### Tullio Levi-Civita $($$\text {1873}$ – $\text {1941}$$)$

Italian mathematician most famous for his work on absolute differential calculus (tensor calculus) and its applications to the theory of relativity.

His work covered celestial mechanics (notably on the three-body problem), analytic mechanics and hydrodynamics.
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#### July

##### Fritz Emde $($$\text {1873}$ – $\text {1951}$$)$

German electronic engineer and high school teacher, best known for his co-authorship with Eugen Jahnke of *Funktionentafeln mit Formeln und Kurven*.
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#### September

##### Constantin Carathéodory $($$\text {1873}$ – $\text {1950}$$)$

German-Greek mathematician who contributed to the theory of functions of a real variable, the calculus of variations and measure theory.

Also worked on rationalisation of the theory of thermodynamics.
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##### Julian Lowell Coolidge $($$\text {1873}$ – $\text {1954}$$)$

American mathematician and a professor and chairman of the Harvard University Mathematics Department.
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#### October

##### Edmund Taylor Whittaker $($$\text {1873}$ – $\text {1956}$$)$

English mathematician who contributed widely to applied mathematics, mathematical physics and the theory of special functions.

Principally interested in numerical analysis.

Worked on celestial mechanics and the history of physics.
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#### December

##### Heinrich Dörrie $($$\text {1873}$ – $\text {1955}$$)$

German teacher of mathematics and author of several specialist books.
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### 1874

#### January

##### René-Louis Baire $($$\text {1874}$ – $\text {1932}$$)$

French mathematician who worked mainly on the theory of continuity and irrational numbers.

Most famous for the Baire Category Theorem.
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##### Leonard Eugene Dickson $($$\text {1874}$ – $\text {1954}$$)$

One of the first American mathematicians to work in abstract algebra.

Also remembered for his history of number theory.
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#### April

##### Edward Vermilye Huntington $($$\text {1874}$ – $\text {1952}$$)$

American mathematician who worked on the foundations of mathematics.
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#### May

##### Friedrich Moritz Hartogs $($$\text {1874}$ – $\text {1943}$$)$

German mathematician who made advances in set theory and complex analysis.

Killed himself as a result of the treatment he had received from the government of his country at the time.
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### 1875

#### January

##### Issai Schur $($$\text {1875}$ – $\text {1941}$$)$

Jewish mathematician of Russian descent working mainly in group theory and combinatorics.

Worked most of his life in Germany, then emigrated to Palestine in 1939 as a result of political persecution, and died a pauper.
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#### February

##### Thomas John I'Anson Bromwich $($$\text {1875}$ – $\text {1929}$$)$

English all-rounder mathematician who committed suicide from mental illness supposedly brought on by overwork.
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##### Yoshio Mikami $($$\text {1875}$ – $\text {1950}$$)$

Japanese mathematician and historian of Japanese mathematics.
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#### March

##### Frank Lauren Hitchcock $($$\text {1875}$ – $\text {1957}$$)$

American mathematician and physicist known for his formulation of the transportation problem in $1941$.
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##### Vladimir Sergeyevitch Ignatowski $($$\text {1875}$ – $\text {1942}$$)$

Russian physicist who wrote on special relativity.

The first to try to derive the Lorentz transformation by group theory only using the relativity principle.
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##### Max Abraham $($$\text {1875}$ – $\text {1922}$$)$

German physicist who studied under Max Planck.

Developed a theory of the electron in $1902$ which was later superseded by different models.
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#### May

##### Beppo Levi $($$\text {1875}$ – $\text {1961}$$)$

Italian mathematician best known for his work on algebraic curves and Lebesgue integration.
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#### June

##### Henri Léon Lebesgue $($$\text {1875}$ – $\text {1941}$$)$

French mathematician famous mainly for his work on the theory of integral calculus.
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#### July

##### Ernst Sigismund Fischer $($$\text {1875}$ – $\text {1954}$$)$

Austrian mathematician who worked in the field of analysis.

Worked with Emmy Noether.
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#### August

##### Giuseppe Vitali $($$\text {1875}$ – $\text {1932}$$)$

Italian mathematician who worked in several branches of analysis.

Best known for the Vitali set: a subset of the real numbers which is not Lebesgue measurable.
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#### October

##### Gilbert Newton Lewis $($$\text {1875}$ – $\text {1946}$$)$

American physical chemist who also researched on relativity and quantum physics.

Coined the term photon in $1926$.
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#### December

##### Francesco Paolo Cantelli $($$\text {1875}$ – $\text {1966}$$)$

Italian mathematician best known for his work in probability theory, and for the Borel-Cantelli Lemma.
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### 1876

#### January

##### Erhard Schmidt $($$\text {1876}$ – $\text {1959}$$)$

Baltic German mathematician whose work significantly influenced the direction of mathematics in the twentieth century.
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##### Robert John Tainsh Bell $($$\text {1876}$ – $\text {1963}$$)$

Scottish mathematician noted for his work in solid geometry.
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#### May

##### Heinrich Wilhelm Ewald Jung $($$\text {1876}$ – $\text {1953}$$)$

German mathematician who specialized in geometry and algebraic geometry.
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##### Gilbert Ames Bliss $($$\text {1876}$ – $\text {1951}$$)$

American mathematician, known for his work on the calculus of variations.
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##### James Gordon Gray $($$\text {1876}$ – $\text {1934}$$)$

Scottish mathematician and physicist.
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#### June

##### William Sealy Gosset $($$\text {1876}$ – $\text {1937}$$)$

English statistician, who published under the pseudonym **Student**, most famous for Student's $t$-distribution.

Being an employee of Guinness, who had concerns about trade secrets being disclosed within academic papers, Gosset was unable to publish under his real name. Gosset was later allowed to publish under the pen name Student.

Had a close friendship with Karl Pearson and Ronald Aylmer Fisher.
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#### September

##### Earle Raymond Hedrick $($$\text {1876}$ – $\text {1943}$$)$

American mathematician who adopted the position of vice-president of the University of California.
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### 1877

##### Joseph George Coffin $($$\text {1877}$ – $\text {1954}$$)$

American mathematician who worked in vector analysis.
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#### February

##### Godfrey Harold Hardy $($$\text {1877}$ – $\text {1947}$$)$

English mathematician noted for his work in number theory and analysis.

Also famous for his discovery and mentorship of Srinivasa Aiyangar Ramanujan.

Non-mathematicians remember him mainly for his book *A Mathematician's Apology*.
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##### Edmund Georg Hermann Landau $($$\text {1877}$ – $\text {1938}$$)$

German mathematician who worked in the fields of number theory and complex analysis.
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#### May

##### James Colquhoun Irvine $($$\text {1877}$ – $\text {1952}$$)$

Scottish organic chemist.

Principal and Vice-Chancellor of the University of St Andrews from $1921$ until his death.

Worked on the application of methylation techniques to carbohydrates.

Isolated the first methylated sugars, trimethyl and tetramethyl glucose.
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#### September

##### Frederick Soddy $($$\text {1877}$ – $\text {1956}$$)$

English radiochemist who, along with Ernest Rutherford, formulated the theory that radioactivity is due to the transmutation of elements, now known to involve nuclear reactions.

Also proved the existence of isotopes of certain radioactive elements.

Best known in the mathematical world for Soddy Circles and Soddy's Hexlet.
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##### James Hopwood Jeans $($$\text {1877}$ – $\text {1946}$$)$

**Sir James Hopwood Jeans** was an English physicist, astronomer and mathematician.
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##### Georg Karl Wilhelm Hamel $($$\text {1877}$ – $\text {1954}$$)$

German mathematician with interests in mechanics, the foundations of mathematics and function theory.
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### 1878

#### January

##### Agner Krarup Erlang $($$\text {1878}$ – $\text {1929}$$)$

Danish mathematician, statistician and engineer, who invented the fields of traffic engineering and queueing theory.
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#### February

##### Walther Ritz $($$\text {1878}$ – $\text {1909}$$)$

Swiss theoretical physicist most famous for his work with Johannes Robert Rydberg on the Rydberg-Ritz Combination Principle.

Also known for the variational method named after him, the Ritz method.
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##### Felix Bernstein $($$\text {1878}$ – $\text {1956}$$)$

German mathematician active mainly in the field of algebraic logic.

He is best known for his $1897$ contribution to what is now known as the Cantor-Bernstein-Schröder Theorem.
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##### Pierre Joseph Louis Fatou $($$\text {1878}$ – $\text {1929}$$)$

French mathematician and astronomer whose main contributions were in the field of analysis.
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#### April

##### Edward Kasner $($$\text {1878}$ – $\text {1955}$$)$

American mathematician best known now for coining the terms googol and googolplex.
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#### June

##### Leopold Löwenheim $($$\text {1878}$ – $\text {1957}$$)$

German mathematician whose work pioneered the field of model theory.

Much of his unpublished work was lost when the British brutally bombed his house in $1943$, an act of unforgivable barbarism for which the Brits have never delivered appropriate recompense.
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#### July

##### Edward John Moreton Drax Plunkett $($$\text {1878}$ – $\text {1957}$$)$

Anglo-Irish writer and dramatist who was also a champion chess player.

Member of the Irish peerage.

Invented a number of chess puzzles.
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#### September

##### Maurice René Fréchet $($$\text {1878}$ – $\text {1973}$$)$

French mathematician who made considerable advances in topology, and pioneered the concept of metric spaces.
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#### December

##### Jan Łukasiewicz $($$\text {1878}$ – $\text {1956}$$)$

Polish philosopher who contributed significantly to logic.

Most famous for his innovation Polish notation, a technique which allows one to write expressions without the need for parentheses.
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### 1879

##### Edwin Raymond Smith $($$\text {1879}$ – $\text {?}$$)$

American (?) mathematician who co-authored a book of mathematical tables with Robert Daniel Carmichael.
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#### January

##### Guido Fubini $($$\text {1879}$ – $\text {1943}$$)$

Italian mathematician best known for Fubini's Theorem and the Fubini-Study metric.
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#### March

##### Robert Daniel Carmichael $($$\text {1879}$ – $\text {1967}$$)$

American mathematician who contributed mainly to the fields of differential equations and number theory.
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##### Albert Einstein $($$\text {1879}$ – $\text {1955}$$)$

German-born mathematician and physicist. Probably the most famous scientist of all time.
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#### April

##### Edwin Bidwell Wilson $($$\text {1879}$ – $\text {1964}$$)$

American mathematician working in vector analysis and probability theory.
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#### September

##### Hans Hahn $($$\text {1879}$ – $\text {1934}$$)$

Austrian mathematician who worked in the fields of functional analysis, topology, set theory, the calculus of variations, real analysis, and order theory.
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#### October

##### Philip Edward Bertrand Jourdain $($$\text {1879}$ – $\text {1919}$$)$

British logician whose work was in the fields of mathematical logic and the foundations of set theory.

He also applied his results in logic to the field of physics.
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#### November

##### John Wesley Young $($$\text {1879}$ – $\text {1932}$$)$

American mathematician who introduced the axioms of projective geometry with Oswald Veblen.
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##### Duncan MacLaren Young Sommerville $($$\text {1879}$ – $\text {1934}$$)$

Scots mathematician best known for his work in geometry, including non-Euclidean.

A founder, and first secretary, of the New Zealand Astronomical Society.
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### 1880

#### January

##### Frigyes Riesz $($$\text {1880}$ – $\text {1956}$$)$

Hungarian mathematician who developed the field of functional analysis.

Gave an elementary proof of the Mean Ergodic Theorem.

Elder brother of the mathematician Marcel Riesz.
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#### March

##### Sergei Natanovich Bernstein $($$\text {1880}$ – $\text {1968}$$)$

Russian mathematician known for contributions to partial differential equations, differential geometry, probability theory, and approximation theory
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##### Richard Martin Gans $($$\text {1880}$ – $\text {1954}$$)$

German physicist responsible for his part in the development of Mie-Gans theory.
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#### June

##### Oswald Veblen $($$\text {1880}$ – $\text {1960}$$)$

American mathematician, geometer and topologist, whose work found application in atomic physics and the theory of relativity.

Proved the Jordan Curve Theorem in 1905.
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#### August

##### Heinrich Franz Friedrich Tietze $($$\text {1880}$ – $\text {1964}$$)$

Austrian mathematician mainly working in abstract algebra and topology.
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## $\text {1881}$ – $\text {1890}$

### 1881

##### Samuel Beatty $($$\text {1881}$ – $\text {1970}$$)$

Canadian mathematician, best known for Beatty sequences.
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#### February

##### Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer $($$\text {1881}$ – $\text {1966}$$)$

Dutch mathematician working in topology, set theory, measure theory and complex analysis.

Founded the mathematical philosophy of intuitionism.
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### 1882

##### Takeo Wada $($$\text {1882}$ – $\text {1944}$$)$

Japanese mathematician working in analysis and topology.

Known for introducing his technique of presenting a graphical representation of the result of a differential equation.
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#### February

##### Joseph Henry Maclagan Wedderburn $($$\text {1882}$ – $\text {1948}$$)$

Scottish mathematician most famous for his work in abstract algebra.
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##### Paul Koebe $($$\text {1882}$ – $\text {1945}$$)$

German-born mathematician who dealt exclusively with the complex numbers.

His most important results were on the uniformization of Riemann surfaces.
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#### March

##### Victor Michael Jean-Marie Thébault $($$\text {1882}$ – $\text {1960}$$)$

French mathematician best known for propounding three specific problems in geometry.

Also contributed many problems to various mathematical journals.
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##### Wacław Franciszek Sierpiński $($$\text {1882}$ – $\text {1969}$$)$

Polish mathematician who made considerable contributions to the fields of set theory, number theory and topology, among others.

Most famous for the Sierpiński triangle.
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##### Emmy Noether $($$\text {1882}$ – $\text {1935}$$)$

German-born mathematician who made considerable contributions to abstract algebra and theoretical physics.

Most famous for Noether's Theorem which makes the fundamental connection between symmetry and various laws of conservation.

Her philosophy and outlook were fundamental in the development of ideas that led to the establishment of the field of category theory.

Daughter of Max Noether.
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#### April

##### Percy Williams Bridgman $($$\text {1882}$ – $\text {1961}$$)$

American physicist awarded for his work on the physics of high pressures.

Wrote extensively on the scientific method and other aspects of the philosophy of science.
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##### Maurice Kraitchik $($$\text {1882}$ – $\text {1957}$$)$

Belgian mathematician and writer who wrote on number theory and recreational mathematics.

Proved in $1922$ that the Mersenne number $M_{257}$ is composite, contrary to the claims of Marin Mersenne.
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#### June

##### Clement Vavasor Durell $($$\text {1882}$ – $\text {1968}$$)$

English schoolmaster who wrote mathematical textbooks.
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#### July

##### Konrad Hermann Theodor Knopp $($$\text {1882}$ – $\text {1957}$$)$

German mathematician who worked on generalized limits and complex functions.
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#### August

##### Thomas Eric Peet $($$\text {1882}$ – $\text {1934}$$)$

English Egyptologist whose contribution to mathematics was his translation of the *Rhind Papyrus*.
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#### September

##### Henry Maurice Sheffer $($$\text {1882}$ – $\text {1964}$$)$

American logician famous for proving in $1913$ that the logical NAND operator is functionally complete. (This had previously been noted by Charles Sanders Peirce in $1880$ but not published till $1933$.)
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#### October

##### Harry Schultz Vandiver $($$\text {1882}$ – $\text {1973}$$)$

American mathematician known for his work in number theory.
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#### December

##### Yakov Isidorovich Perelman $($$\text {1882}$ – $\text {1942}$$)$

Russian and Soviet science writer and author of many popular science books, including *Physics for Entertainment* and *Mathematics Can Be Fun*.
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##### Max Born $($$\text {1882}$ – $\text {1970}$$)$

German-Jewish physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics.

Also made contributions to solid-state physics and optics.

Supervised the work of a number of notable physicists in the 1920s and 1930s.
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### 1883

##### Frederick Ernest Relton $($$\text {1883}$ – $\text {1963}$$)$

English mathematician known for his books on Bessel functions and applied differential equations.
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#### February

##### Eric Temple Bell $($$\text {1883}$ – $\text {1960}$$)$

Scottish mathematician now more famous for his popular work on the history of mathematics *Men of Mathematics*.

Did research in number theory and analysis, and (less than successfully) worked on putting umbral calculus on a sound logical footing.

Also noted (in certain circles) for writing science fiction (under the pseudonym **John Taine**) and poetry.
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#### April

##### Clarence Irving Lewis $($$\text {1883}$ – $\text {1964}$$)$

American philosopher logician recognized as being a leading authority on symbolic logic.

An early proponent of the work of Charles Sanders Peirce, and also referenced the logical works of Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz.

Did considerable work to analyze the semantic meaning of the conditional statement.

Analyzed modal logic.
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##### Richard Edler von Mises $($$\text {1883}$ – $\text {1953}$$)$

Mathematician and scientist of Austrian nationality who worked in the fields of statistics, probability theory and various branches of applied mathematics and physics.

Also an authority on the poet Rainer Maria Rilke.
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#### June

##### James Henry Weaver $($$\text {1883}$ – $\text {1942}$$)$

American mathematician who co-authored books with Robert Daniel Carmichael.
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#### August

##### Norman Herbert Anning $($$\text {1883}$ – $\text {1963}$$)$

Canadian mathematician, best known for the Erdős-Anning Theorem.
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### 1884

##### Nicolaas George Wijnand Henri Beeger $($$\text {1884}$ – $\text {1965}$$)$

Dutch mathematician who worked on Dirichlet series.

Proved in $1922$ that $3511$ is a Wieferich prime.
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#### January

##### Arnaud Denjoy $($$\text {1884}$ – $\text {1974}$$)$

French mathematician known for his contributions in harmonic analysis and differential equations.
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#### March

##### Bharati Krishna Tirthaji $($$\text {1884}$ – $\text {1960}$$)$

Indian monastic who wrote a book on mental arithmetic.
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##### Philipp Frank $($$\text {1884}$ – $\text {1966}$$)$

Austrian physicist, mathematician and logical-positivist philosopher.

Member of the Vienna Circle.
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##### George David Birkhoff $($$\text {1884}$ – $\text {1944}$$)$

American mathematician best known for what is now known as the Ergodic Theorem.

The father of Garrett Birkhoff.
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#### April

##### Thomas Murray MacRobert $($$\text {1884}$ – $\text {1962}$$)$

British mathematician working mainly in analysis.
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##### Arthur Josef Alwin Wieferich $($$\text {1884}$ – $\text {1954}$$)$

German mathematician who contributed briefly to the field of number theory before concentrating on a career in teaching.
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#### June

##### Eduard Helly $($$\text {1884}$ – $\text {1943}$$)$

Austrian mathematician working mainly in topology and functional analysis.

Proved the Hahn-Banach Theorem and Banach-Steinhaus Theorem, but remained unrecognised for these at the time.
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##### Henry Thomas Herbert Piaggio $($$\text {1884}$ – $\text {1967}$$)$

English mathematician best known for his text book *An Elementary Treatise on Differential Equations and their Applications*.
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##### Ruggiero Torelli $($$\text {1884}$ – $\text {1915}$$)$

Italian mathematician whose work was mainly in algebraic geometry and the non-rational functions of the points of a Riemann surface.
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##### Charles Ernest Weatherburn $($$\text {1884}$ – $\text {1974}$$)$

Australian mathematician best known for his work in vector analysis.
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#### September

##### Solomon Lefschetz $($$\text {1884}$ – $\text {1972}$$)$

Russian-born American mathematician who did fundamental work on algebraic topology, its applications to algebraic geometry, and the theory of non-linear ordinary differential equations.
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##### Harvey Fletcher $($$\text {1884}$ – $\text {1981}$$)$

American experimental physicist who made contributions in acoustics, electrical engineering, speech, medicine, music, atomic physics, sound pictures, and education.

Worked with Robert Andrews Millikan on measuring the elementary electric charge.
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##### Dénes Kőnig $($$\text {1884}$ – $\text {1944}$$)$

Hungarian mathematician who was a pioneer of graph theory.

The son of Gyula Kőnig.
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### 1885

#### January

##### Michel Plancherel $($$\text {1885}$ – $\text {1967}$$)$

Swiss mathematician who worked in the areas of mathematical analysis, mathematical physics and algebra.
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#### April

##### Leonida Tonelli $($$\text {1885}$ – $\text {1946}$$)$

Italian mathematician, noted for creating Tonelli's Theorem.
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#### June

##### John Edensor Littlewood $($$\text {1885}$ – $\text {1977}$$)$

British mathematician best known for his collaborations with Godfrey Harold Hardy.
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#### August

##### Herbert Westren Turnbull $($$\text {1885}$ – $\text {1961}$$)$

English mathematician best known now for his writings on the history of mathematics.

Did considerably work on the theory of invariants.
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#### September

##### Wilhelm Johann Eugen Blaschke $($$\text {1885}$ – $\text {1962}$$)$

Austrian differential and integral geometer.

Published one of the first books devoted to convex sets: *Kreis und Kugel*.

Made a thorough review of the subject with citations within the text to attribute credit in a classical area of mathematics.
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#### October

##### Niels Henrik David Bohr $($$\text {1885}$ – $\text {1962}$$)$

Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory.
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##### Viggo Brun $($$\text {1885}$ – $\text {1978}$$)$

Norwegian mathematician best known for his work in number theory.
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#### November

##### Frank Hyneman Knight $($$\text {1885}$ – $\text {1972}$$)$

American economist whose work inspired some of the early developments in game theory.

Developed the argument which was eventually named Wardrop's Principle (for John Glen Wardrop).
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##### Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl $($$\text {1885}$ – $\text {1955}$$)$

German mathematician who worked in the fields of mathematical logic and mathematical physics.
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### 1886

##### Lillian Rosanoff Lieber $($$\text {1886}$ – $\text {1986}$$)$

American mathematician about whom (despite her time at Long Island University) few details survive.

Most famous for her work directed at **T.C. Mits** (The Celebrated Man In The Street). Her husband **Hugh Gray Lieber** often did the illustrations.

Some editions of her work are credited to **Lilian R. Lieber**, but most resources have her as **Lillian**.
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#### January

##### Soichi Kakeya $($$\text {1886}$ – $\text {1947}$$)$

Japanese mathematician who worked mainly in mathematical analysis

Posed the Kakeya Problem.

Solved a version of the desert crossing problem.
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##### George Neville Watson $($$\text {1886}$ – $\text {1965}$$)$

English mathematician who applied complex analysis to the theory of special functions.
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#### September

##### Paul Pierre Lévy $($$\text {1886}$ – $\text {1971}$$)$

French mathematician who was active especially in probability theory, introducing fundamental concepts such as local time, stable distributions and characteristic functions.
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#### November

##### Marcel Riesz $($$\text {1886}$ – $\text {1969}$$)$

Hungarian mathematician who worked on analysis, number theory and abstract algebra, among other fields.

Younger brother of the mathematician Frigyes Riesz.
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#### December

##### Ludwig Georg Elias Moses Bieberbach $($$\text {1886}$ – $\text {1982}$$)$

German mathematician working mostly in analysis.
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### 1887

##### Paul Poulet $($$\text {1887}$ – $\text {1946}$$)$

Belgian amateur mathematician working in number theory.

Published his investigations into sociable numbers in $1918$.

Calculated the Fermat pseudoprimes to base $2$ (now called Poulet numbers) up to $50$ million in $1926$, then up to $100$ million in $1938$.

Published $43$ new multiperfect numbers in $1925$, including the first two known octo-perfect numbers.
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#### January

##### Władysław Hugo Dionizy Steinhaus $($$\text {1887}$ – $\text {1972}$$)$

Polish mathematician and educator who gave a notable contribution to functional analysis through the Banach-Steinhaus Theorem.
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#### February

##### Arthur Rosenthal $($$\text {1887}$ – $\text {1959}$$)$

German mathematician working in geometry, in particular the classification of regular polyhedra and Hilbert's axioms.

Also made contributions in analysis, including to Carathéodory's theory of measure.

With Michel Plancherel, made contributions in ergodic theory and dynamical systems.
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#### May

##### Thoralf Albert Skolem $($$\text {1887}$ – $\text {1963}$$)$

Norwegian mathematician who worked mainly in the fields of mathematical logic and set theory.
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#### June

##### Vladimir Ivanovich Smirnov $($$\text {1887}$ – $\text {1974}$$)$

Russian mathematician who contributed significantly to several areas of pure and applied mathematics. Best known for his 5-volume textbook *A Course in Higher Mathematics* which was widely used.
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##### Ernst Hjalmar Waloddi Weibull $($$\text {1887}$ – $\text {1979}$$)$

Swedish engineer, scientist, and mathematician best known for giving his name to the Weibull distribution.
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#### August

##### Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger $($$\text {1887}$ – $\text {1961}$$)$

Austrian physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in the field of quantum theory, which formed the basis of wave mechanics.
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#### September

##### Erich Hecke $($$\text {1887}$ – $\text {1947}$$)$

German mathematician working mainly in functional analysis.
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#### December

##### George Pólya $($$\text {1887}$ – $\text {1985}$$)$

Hungarian mathematician best known nowadays for the books he wrote.
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##### Charles Galton Darwin $($$\text {1887}$ – $\text {1962}$$)$

English physicist.

Served as director of the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) during the Second World War
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##### Srinivasa Aiyangar Ramanujan $($$\text {1887}$ – $\text {1920}$$)$

Indian mathematician who made substantial contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory, infinite series and continued fractions.
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### 1888

##### Alan Robson $($$\text {1888}$ – $\text {1956}$$)$

English schoolmaster who wrote mathematical textbooks.

A major figure in the Mathematical Association.
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#### January

##### Richard Courant $($$\text {1888}$ – $\text {1972}$$)$

German mathematician best known for his writings.

Made considerable contributions to the field numerical analysis.
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##### Louis Joel Mordell $($$\text {1888}$ – $\text {1972}$$)$

American-born British mathematician known for his pioneering research in number theory.
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##### Sydney Chapman $($$\text {1888}$ – $\text {1970}$$)$

English mathematician whose most noted mathematical accomplishments were in the field of stochastic processes.

Worked out the photochemical mechanisms that give rise to the ozone layer.
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#### June

##### Zygmunt Janiszewski $($$\text {1888}$ – $\text {1920}$$)$

Polish mathematician whose work was mainly in topology.

Co-founded the journal *Fundamenta Mathematicae* but died of influenza before its first issue.
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##### William Richard Maximilian Hugo Threlfall $($$\text {1888}$ – $\text {1949}$$)$

German mathematician whose main work was in topology.

Collaborated extensively with Karl Johannes Herbert Seifert.
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#### September

##### James Waddell Alexander II $($$\text {1888}$ – $\text {1971}$$)$

American mathematician who did pioneering work in topology and knot theory.
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##### Aubrey John Kempner $($$\text {1888}$ – $\text {1973}$$)$

English-born American mathematician, known for the Kempner function and the Kempner series.
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##### Stefan Mazurkiewicz $($$\text {1888}$ – $\text {1945}$$)$

Polish mathematician who worked in mathematical analysis, topology and probability.
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#### October

##### Paul Isaac Bernays $($$\text {1888}$ – $\text {1977}$$)$

Swiss mathematician who worked mainly in mathematical logic and axiomatic set theory.
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### 1889

##### Jekuthiel Ginsburg $($$\text {1889}$ – $\text {1957}$$)$

American mathematician best known for founding *Scripta Mathematica*.
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#### February

##### Hyman Levy $($$\text {1889}$ – $\text {1975}$$)$

Scottish philosopher, mathematician and political activist.

Aeronautics researcher at the National Physical Laboratory.

Published papers and books on mathematical applications pertaining to aeronautics.

Wrote about differential equations and probability.
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#### March

##### William Marshall Smart $($$\text {1889}$ – $\text {1975}$$)$

Scottish astronomer who authored the famous *Textbook on Spherical Astronomy*.
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#### April

##### Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein $($$\text {1889}$ – $\text {1951}$$)$

Austrian philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.
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#### August

##### Léon Nicolas Brillouin $($$\text {1889}$ – $\text {1969}$$)$

French physicist who made contributions to quantum mechanics, radio wave propagation in the atmosphere, solid state physics, and information theory.
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### 1890

#### February

##### Ronald Aylmer Fisher $($$\text {1890}$ – $\text {1962}$$)$

English statistician, evolutionary biologist, mathematician, geneticist, and eugenicist.
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#### October

##### Jakob Nielsen $($$\text {1890}$ – $\text {1959}$$)$

Danish mathematician known for his work on automorphisms of surfaces.
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## $\text {1891}$ – $\text {1900}$

### 1891

##### Vera Sanford $($$\text {1891}$ – $\text {1971}$$)$

American mathematician and historian.
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#### February

##### Abraham Halevi Fraenkel $($$\text {1891}$ – $\text {1965}$$)$

German-born Israeli Hungarian mathematician best known for his work on axiomatic set theory.

He improved Ernst Zermelo's axiomatic system, and out of that work came the Zermelo-Fraenkel axioms.

He also wrote on topics in the history of mathematics.
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#### April

##### Harold Jeffreys $($$\text {1891}$ – $\text {1989}$$)$

English mathematician, statistician, geophysicist, and astronomer.
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#### May

##### Rudolf Carnap $($$\text {1891}$ – $\text {1970}$$)$

German-born philosopher who was active in Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter.
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#### September

##### Ivan Matveevich Vinogradov $($$\text {1891}$ – $\text {1983}$$)$

One of the creators of the field of analytic number theory.
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##### William Frederick Friedman $($$\text {1891}$ – $\text {1969}$$)$

American cryptographer instrumental in breaking Japan's PURPLE cipher before America's entrance into World War II.
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#### October

##### Rodion Osievich Kuzmin $($$\text {1891}$ – $\text {1949}$$)$

Russian mathematician, known for his works in number theory and analysis.
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#### November

##### Edward Lindsay Ince $($$\text {1891}$ – $\text {1941}$$)$

English mathematician who worked mainly in the field of differential equations.
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#### December

##### Hubert Phillips $($$\text {1891}$ – $\text {1964}$$)$

British economist, journalist, broadcaster, bridge player and organiser, composer of puzzles and quizzes, and the author of some 70 books.
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### 1892

##### A.A. Krishnaswami Ayyangar $($$\text {1892}$ – $\text {1953}$$)$

Indian mathematician who wrote on the Chakravala method.
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#### March

##### Stefan Banach $($$\text {1892}$ – $\text {1945}$$)$

Polish mathematician who founded the modern field of functional analysis.

Most famous for his collaborative paper with Alfred Tarski in 1924, in which the Banach-Tarski Paradox was raised. This demonstrated that a contra-intuitive truth could be deduced from the ZFC axioms of set theory, specifically, by assuming the truth of the Axiom of Choice. Impassioned controversy rages to this day.
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#### May

##### George Paget Thomson $($$\text {1892}$ – $\text {1975}$$)$

English physicist known for his discovery of the wave properties of the electron by electron diffraction.
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#### July

##### Arnold Walfisz $($$\text {1892}$ – $\text {1962}$$)$

Polish mathematician who worked in analytic number theory.

Founded the mathematical journal *Acta Arithmetica* with Salomon Lubelski.
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##### Herman Lyle Smith $($$\text {1892}$ – $\text {1950}$$)$

American mathematician who worked in the field of set theory.
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##### Tage Gills Torsten Carleman $($$\text {1892}$ – $\text {1949}$$)$

Swedish mathematician whose main work was in analysis and applied mathematics.
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#### August

##### Li Yan $($$\text {1892}$ – $\text {1963}$$)$

Chinese mathematician and historian of mathematics.
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### 1893

##### Leigh Mercer $($$\text {1893}$ – $\text {1977}$$)$

British recreational mathematician and wordplay expert best known for coining the palindrome: *A man, a plan, a canal -- Panama!*

Also the inventor of several limericks.
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#### February

##### Gaston Maurice Julia $($$\text {1893}$ – $\text {1978}$$)$

French mathematician who devised the formula for the Julia Set.

His works were popularised by Benoit B. Mandelbrot.
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#### May

##### Bronisław Knaster $($$\text {1893}$ – $\text {1980}$$)$

Polish mathematician best known for his discovery, in 1922, of the so-called hereditarily indecomposable continuum, otherwise known as the pseudo-arc, and the Knaster continuum, otherwise known as the buckethandle continuum.
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#### June

##### Eduard Čech $($$\text {1893}$ – $\text {1960}$$)$

Czech mathematician whose research interests included projective differential geometry and topology.

Best known for the Stone-Čech Compactification Theory, with Marshall Harvey Stone.
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### July

##### Bernard Hague $($$\text {1893}$ – $\text {1960}$$)$

British professor of engineering mathematics.
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#### August

##### Leslie John Comrie $($$\text {1893}$ – $\text {1950}$$)$

Mathematician and astronomer who was a pioneer in the field of mechanical computation.

Produced two editions of *Barlow's Tables*, making significant extensions and enhancements.

Computerised the British football pools.
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#### September

##### Carl Harald Cramér $($$\text {1893}$ – $\text {1985}$$)$

Swedish mathematician, actuary, and statistician, specializing in mathematical statistics and probabilistic number theory.
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##### Alexander Markowich Ostrowski $($$\text {1893}$ – $\text {1986}$$)$

Contributed towards the fields of determinants, linear algebra, algebraic equations, multivariate algebra, formal algebra, number theory, geometry, topology, convergence, theory of real functions, differential equations, differential transformations, theory of complex functions, conformal mappings, numerical analysis and others.
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##### Hilda Geiringer von Mises $($$\text {1893}$ – $\text {1973}$$)$

Austrian mathematician best known for her work in applied mathematics.
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#### October

##### William Leonard Ferrar $($$\text {1893}$ – $\text {1990}$$)$

English mathematician who focused on interpolation theory and number theory.
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#### November

##### André Bloch $($$\text {1893}$ – $\text {1948}$$)$

French mathematician who is best remembered for his fundamental contribution to complex analysis.
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### 1894

#### February

##### Hendrik Anthony Kramers $($$\text {1894}$ – $\text {1952}$$)$

Dutch physicist who worked with Niels Bohr to understand how electromagnetic waves interact with matter.
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#### April

##### Jerzy Neyman $($$\text {1894}$ – $\text {1981}$$)$

Polish mathematician and statistician who first introduced the modern concept of a confidence interval into statistical hypothesis testing.

Co-revised Ronald Aylmer Fisher's null hypothesis testing (in collaboration with Egon Sharpe Pearson).
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#### July

##### Roland Percival Sprague $($$\text {1894}$ – $\text {1967}$$)$

German mathematician, known for the Sprague-Grundy Theorem and for being the first mathematician to find a perfect squared square.
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##### Georges Henri Joseph Édouard Lemaître $($$\text {1894}$ – $\text {1966}$$)$

Belgian Catholic priest, mathematician, astronomer, and professor of physics.

The first to hypothesise the Big Bang theory.
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##### Aleksandr Yakovlevich Khinchin $($$\text {1894}$ – $\text {1959}$$)$

Russian mathematician who was an important figure in the field of probability theory.
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#### September

##### Dirk Jan Struik $($$\text {1894}$ – $\text {2000}$$)$

Dutch mathematician, historian of mathematics and Marxian theoretician who spent most of his life in the United States.
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#### November

##### Heinz Hopf $($$\text {1894}$ – $\text {1971}$$)$

German mathematician who worked on the fields of topology and geometry.
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##### Norbert Wiener $($$\text {1894}$ – $\text {1964}$$)$

American mathematician who worked mainly in computer science, stochastic processes and cybernetics.
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### 1895

#### January

##### Gábor Szegő $($$\text {1895}$ – $\text {1985}$$)$

Hungarian mathematician best known nowadays for his collaborations with George Pólya.
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#### April

##### Alexander Craig Aitken $($$\text {1895}$ – $\text {1967}$$)$

New Zealander mathematician known for his work in statistics, algebra and numerical analysis.

Worked at Bletchley Park during World War II on the Enigma code.
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#### May

##### Júlio César de Mello e Souza $($$\text {1895}$ – $\text {1974}$$)$

Mathematics professor who became famous his works on recreational mathematics, in particular *O Homem que Calculava* (*The Man Who Counted*), written under the name Malba Tahan.
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#### July

##### Trygve Nagell $($$\text {1895}$ – $\text {1988}$$)$

Norwegian mathematician known for his work on Diophantine equations.
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### 1896

##### John Perry Ballantine $($$\text {1896}$ – $\text {1970}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his work on improvements to classroom calculation techniques.

Inventor of the table slide rule.
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##### Aimé Ferrier $($$\text {1896}$ – $\text {1975}$$)$

French mathematician who discovered in $1951$ that $\dfrac {2^{148} + 1} {17}$ is prime, using a manual desk calculator.

This is now sometimes referred to as Ferrier's prime.
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##### Lawrence Murray Graves $($$\text {1896}$ – $\text {1973}$$)$

American mathematician and author of textbooks.
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#### February

##### Kazimierz Kuratowski $($$\text {1896}$ – $\text {1980}$$)$

Polish mathematician whose work was mainly in topology and metric spaces.

Pioneered, with Alfred Tarski and Wacław Franciszek Sierpiński, the theory of Polish spaces.
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#### March

##### Wilhelm Friedrich Ackermann $($$\text {1896}$ – $\text {1962}$$)$

German mathematician, best known for the Ackermann function.
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#### May

##### Pavel Sergeyevich Alexandrov $($$\text {1896}$ – $\text {1982}$$)$

Russian mathematician who made considerable contributions in the fields of set theory and topology.

The first to introduce the concept of a kernel of a homomorphism.
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#### November

##### Raymond Louis Wilder $($$\text {1896}$ – $\text {1982}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his writing on the subject of the philosophy of mathematics.
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##### Ernst Paul Heinz Prüfer $($$\text {1896}$ – $\text {1934}$$)$

German mathematician who worked on abelian groups, algebraic numbers, knot theory and Sturm-Liouville theory.

Provided an ingenious proof of Cayley's Formula.
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##### Bertram Martin Wilson $($$\text {1896}$ – $\text {1935}$$)$

English mathematician, remembered primarily as a co-editor, along with G.H. Hardy and P.V. Seshu Aiyar, of the *Collected Papers of Srinivasa Ramanujan*.
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#### December

##### Carl Ludwig Siegel $($$\text {1896}$ – $\text {1981}$$)$

German mathematician specialising in analytic number theory.
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### 1897

##### Edgar Giraldus Phillips $($$\text {b. 1897}$$)$

British mathematician known for his textbooks.
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#### January

##### Valery Ivanovich Glivenko $($$\text {1897}$ – $\text {1940}$$)$

Ukrainian mathematician who worked in foundations of mathematics, real analysis, probability theory, and mathematical statistics
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#### February

##### Emil Leon Post $($$\text {1897}$ – $\text {1954}$$)$

Polish-born American mathematician and logician.

Best known for his work in the field of computability theory.
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##### Lincoln La Paz $($$\text {1897}$ – $\text {1985}$$)$

American mathematician and pioneer in the field of meteorics.

During World War II, served as research mathematician at the New Mexico Proving Grounds.
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#### March

##### Charles Fox $($$\text {1897}$ – $\text {1977}$$)$

English mathematician who introduced the Fox $H$-Function.
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##### Douglas Rayner Hartree $($$\text {1897}$ – $\text {1958}$$)$

English mathematician and physicist most famous for the development of numerical analysis and its application to the Hartree-Fock equations of atomic physics.

Constructed a differential analyser using Meccano.
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#### October

##### Edwin James George Pitman $($$\text {1897}$ – $\text {1993}$$)$

Australian mathematician who made significant contributions to statistics and probability theory.
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#### December

##### Vojtěch Jarník $($$\text {1897}$ – $\text {1970}$$)$

Czech mathematician who worked mainly in number theory and analysis.

Also produced some results in lattice theory and graph theory.
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##### Stanisław Saks $($$\text {1897}$ – $\text {1942}$$)$

Polish mathematician and university tutor, known primarily for an extensive monograph on the theory of integrals and his works on measure theory.
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### 1898

#### February

##### Pavel Samuilovich Urysohn $($$\text {1898}$ – $\text {1924}$$)$

Ukrainian mathematician mainly working in analysis and topology.

Introduced the concept of compactness with Pavel Alexandrov in 1923.

Drowned in rough seas while swimming off the coast of France.
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##### Charles Wilderman Trigg $($$\text {1898}$ – $\text {1989}$$)$

American engineer, mathematician and educator.

Best known nowadays for his work in the field of recreational mathematics.
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##### Gregor Wentzel $($$\text {1898}$ – $\text {1978}$$)$

German physicist best known for development of quantum mechanics
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#### March

##### Emil Artin $($$\text {1898}$ – $\text {1962}$$)$

Austrian-American mathematician mainly working in abstract algebra and topology.
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##### David Vernon Widder $($$\text {1898}$ – $\text {1990}$$)$

American mathematician mainly working in analyis.

He was highly regarded for his teaching abilities.

The author of the textbook *Advanced Calculus*.
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#### April

##### Hellmuth Kneser $($$\text {1898}$ – $\text {1973}$$)$

German mathematician, who made notable contributions to group theory and topology.

Derived the theorem on the existence of a prime decomposition for $3$-manifolds.

Originated the concept of a normal surface.
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#### May

##### Arend Heyting $($$\text {1898}$ – $\text {1980}$$)$

Dutch mathematician and logician of the Intuitionist school.
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#### June

##### Arthur Herbert Copeland $($$\text {1898}$ – $\text {1970}$$)$

American mathematician whose main interest was in the foundations of probability.

Worked with Paul Erdős on the Copeland-Erdős constant.
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#### August

##### Helmut Hasse $($$\text {1898}$ – $\text {1979}$$)$

German mathematician who worked mainly in algebraic number theory and class field theory.
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#### October

##### Karl Menninger $($$\text {1898}$ – $\text {1963}$$)$

German teacher of and writer about mathematics.
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#### November

##### Raphaël Salem $($$\text {1898}$ – $\text {1963}$$)$

Greek mathematician after whom are named the Salem numbers and Salem-Spencer sets.

Also worked on Fourier series.
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### 1899

##### Stanley Skewes $($$\text {1899}$ – $\text {1988}$$)$

South African mathematician, best known for his discovery of the Skewes' number in $1933$.

One of John Edensor Littlewood's students at Cambridge University.
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#### January

##### Szolem Mandelbrojt $($$\text {1899}$ – $\text {1983}$$)$

Polish-French mathematician who specialized in mathematical analysis.

Co-founder of the Bourbaki group in $1934$.
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#### February

##### Wolfgang Gröbner $($$\text {1899}$ – $\text {1980}$$)$

Austrian mathematician best known for the Gröbner Basis, used for computations in algebraic geometry.
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#### April

##### Oscar Zariski $($$\text {1899}$ – $\text {1986}$$)$

Russian-born mathematician, highly influential in the fields of algebraic geometry and topology.
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#### May

##### Otto Eduard Neugebauer $($$\text {1899}$ – $\text {1990}$$)$

Austrian American mathematician and historian of science best known for his research on the history of astronomy and the other exact sciences in antiquity and into the Middle Ages.

By studying clay tablets, he discovered that the ancient Babylonians knew much more about mathematics and astronomy than had been previously realized.
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#### June

##### Edward Charles Titchmarsh $($$\text {1899}$ – $\text {1963}$$)$

British mathematician known for his work in analytic number theory, Fourier analysis and other parts of mathematical analysis.
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#### August

##### Wolfgang Krull $($$\text {1899}$ – $\text {1971}$$)$

Made significant contributions to many areas of commutative algebra.

Much of his work was influenced by Felix Klein and Emmy Noether.
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#### October

##### Øystein Ore $($$\text {1899}$ – $\text {1968}$$)$

Norwegian mathematician whose work was mainly in graph theory, although also known for his work in ring theory and Galois theory.

One of the early founders of lattice theory.

Also known for writing and editing several books, including a few on various aspects of the history of mathematics.
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#### December

##### Ruel Vance Churchill $($$\text {1899}$ – $\text {1987}$$)$

American mathematician best known for his textbooks.
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### 1900

#### February

##### John Charles Burkill $($$\text {1900}$ – $\text {1983}$$)$

British mathematician whose main work was in analysis.

Also renowned for the quality of his teaching books.
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#### April

##### Albert Edward Ingham $($$\text {1900}$ – $\text {1967}$$)$

British mathematician best known for his work in analytic number theory.
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##### Wolfgang Ernst Pauli $($$\text {1900}$ – $\text {1958}$$)$

Austrian-born Swiss and American theoretical physicist.

Qne of the pioneers of quantum physics.
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#### October

##### Nikolai Vasilyevich Smirnov $($$\text {1900}$ – $\text {1966}$$)$

Russian mathematician noted for his work in various fields including probability theory and statistics.
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#### November

##### Viktor Vladimirovich Nemytskii $($$\text {1900}$ – $\text {1967}$$)$

Soviet mathematician who introduced Nemytskii operators and the Niemytzki plane
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#### December

##### Noel Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham $($$\text {1900}$ – $\text {1995}$$)$

British scientist and scholar of Chinese history who is best known for writing on the history of Chinese science, technology and mathematics.
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##### John Clarke Slater $($$\text {1900}$ – $\text {1976}$$)$

American physicist who made major contributions to the theory of the electronic structure of atoms, molecules and solids.
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##### Antoni Szczepan Zygmund $($$\text {1900}$ – $\text {1992}$$)$

Polish-born American mathematician famous for his work on trigonometrical series.
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